The Primacy of sAmavedaM is in UpAsana through the singing of hymns . The science of music is said to have evolved from this vedaM , gandharva vedaM is a subsidiary of sAmavedaM ,
as with other vedaMs, sAmavedaM originally had numerous branches, but only three exist now ( jaiminIya shAkhA, rAyayaNIya shAkhA , kauThuma shAkhA ). The jaiminIya shAkhA been traditionally chiefly practiced in the states of tamiZh deshaM and kerala deshaM .
sAmaMs are made by modifying riks using the same words, changed, repeated, deleted, or letters and words added, all according to strict rules, with no provision for improvisations. The musical chanting has come down through the ages from Acharya ( gurU ) to shishya by word of mouth. The jaiminIya shAkhA is the most musical of the three existing branches. While other vedaMs use three notes (swaraMs) sAmaM is sung using seven notes (prathhama, etc.). jaiminIya shAkhA uses syllables consisting of regular vowels and consonants for its svara marking , svara marking is limited to the gAna part of the jaiminIya shAkhA . The svara marking of the jaiminIya shAkhA is a different matter entirely and has not been studied and analysed yet . Following is rUdraM of jaiminIya shAkhA consisting of 11 sAmaMs.
1) Words such as hAbu, hAvUvA, OyiZha and hAyI, are stobhas for jaiminIya shAkhA . ( kauThuma shAkhA have hAvU , hAvUva , OhaiyA and hAyI as stobhas )
2) The method of musical chanting among kerala brahmanas is quite different from the tamizh brAhamans of the same branch. Only nAmboothirIs use “Zha” in their sAmavedAlApanaM.
3) A peculiar type of svara marking is also there for jaiminIya shAkhA having 4 svara marks
a) Ring Above
b) Double Ring Above
c) Vertical Line Above
d) Horizontal Line Above