kAThaka purUsha suktaM

purUsha suktaM is one of most celebrated vedic hymn employed densely in any vedic ritual . It is recited in almost all Vedic rituals and ceremonies. The purUsha suktaM is an important part of the rig-veda ( It also appears in the taittirIya Aranyaka (3.12,13), the vAjasaneyI samhitA (31.1-6), the sAmaveda samhitA (6.4), and the aTharvaveda samhitA (19.6). An explanation of parts of it can also be found in the shatapaTha, taittirIya , and shvetAshwatara brAhmana. Like any other veda shAkhA , kAThaka shAkhA too have purUsha suktaM. This sukta is housed in purUshamedhaM of kAThaka shAkhA.The sukta is in anushtuba and trishtup meters , vishvAtma purUsha ( virAta purUsha , vishvarUpa ) is deity and nArAyana is rishI.( kAThaks first recite meter then deity and then the seer of any mantra , this is standard format of viniyoga for them ).Like any other veda shAkhA it is one of important suktas of kAThaka shAkhA. In srauta context it is used in  purUshamedhaM .In grihya context it is used as  UpasThana sukta in sandhyA , also employed in devtArchana and abhishekaM of any male deity. First published edition of kAThaka purUsha suktaM was in ‘kAThaka samkalan’ of suryakAnta.




1) ्ं  /gum/ is missing in the text , neither marked nor recited in modern recitations.

2) purUshmedhaM is not found in samhitA portion ( probably in kAThaka brAhman which is lost. )

3) svars were lost at early stag so it is recited in ekashrutI mode.


Handwritten sandhyA manual of swAmI lakshman joo.( His handwriting )

Animesh’s Blog


laghu rUdra sukta of kAThaka yajurvedins

The land which once was  enchanted with mantras of four vedas ( rigveda shAkal ,yajurveda kAthaka ,sAmaveda kauThuma and atharvaveda paippalAda shAkhA ), 84 Agamas and many  sAkta tantras is barren from  sound of namakaM and chamakaM.Ancestors of present kashmIrI pandits were chaturvedIs, with time only largest following shAkhA( i.e. kAthaka shAkhA with laugAkshI sutra ) remain preserved.Due to decline in tradition all groups of kashmIrI brAhman adopted it . As for as my knowledge one of such group have bhava-kapishThala gotra and they are originally follower of kapishThala shAkhA but lately adopted kaThaka shAkhA .Today land of kashmIra lacks even a single samhitA pAthI of kaThaka shAkhA .Due to practical use only rituals and ritual manuals of kaThaka shAkhA remain preserved .Unfortunately due scarcity of time, sake of bred and butter , malecchAs and lost interest this rituals and ritual manuals ( prayoga pustakas ) are also dying . As told to me by an old kashmIrI priest on telephonic conversation ” from last 150 years rituals and ritual manuals are continuously getting shortened , Those manual that we were taught was about 90-100 pages and our forefather’s handwritten manuscripts were about 150-200 pages ,different ritualas take 4-5 hours. Now rituals manuals are shortened to 30-45 pages and don’t consume much time ( only about 1:30 to 2 hous ) , the rituals which previously performed for 40 days are now performed for  15 days .”
In such transition period ( where shortening of prayoga pustaka was taking place ) kAThakas evolved a laghu rUdra suktA which was an easy substitute to bulky rUdraM .In case of time’s devil , generally (in north ) first sixteen mantras of namakaM are recited .Peculiarly kAThakas evolved a unique laghu rUdra sukta.
A pseudo dhyAna mantra is  recited in beginning by kAthakas and then last 11 mantras of namakaM with two additional mantras , first of them is tvarita rUdra mantra and second is vedic aghor mantra , are recited .This 14 mantras in total makes laghu rUdra sukta.( 14 mantras flashes back my memory to  14 mantramaheshvaras in trika system )





1) Aghor mantra  have pAtha bheda from standard mantra.


Ritual manual of satIsara vidvAns


kAThaka snAna prayoga

SnAna is a very essential nitya karma that a twice born has to perform daily. Following is snAna prayoga of kAthaka shAkhA. The prayogam is taken from handwritten ritual manual of swamI lakshman joo ( srI lakshman rAinA shivAcharya ) .The manual have sandhyA prayoga , tarpana prayoga, nitya snAna prayoga , gurU gItA in handwriting of srI lakshman joo. Although mantras are from kAthaka samhitA and laugAkshI grihya sutraM but neither vedic swaras are marked nor recited with swaras. All mantras are chanted in EkashrutI mode.
snAna have 15 steps according to kAthakas.

1) hastaprakshAlanaM
( Washing the hands )

2) vAma pada prakshAlan

3) daksha pada prakshAlan
( washing of left and right feet , together these steps are called pAda prakshAlan )

4) gandhusha kritya
( cleaning of mouth trice by water )

5) mukha-sammArjana
( cleaning of face by water )

6) yagnyopavIta prakshAlanam
( cleaning of yagnyopavItam by discarding it from left shoulder and keeping in between the right and left thumbs .This practice is not allowed in other vedic shAkhAs , if they do this then they have to undergone punarupanayana. Only certain yajurvedic schools ( kaTha , charaka, taittirIya ,kAnva , vAjasaneya ) are allowed to perform such kind of cleaning of yagnyopavIta .hiranyakeshIya samskAra ratnamAla quotes devala as pramAna for this.


7) punardhArana
( again wearing of yagnyopavIta on left shoulder )

8) shikhA mArjan
( cleaning of matted lock )

9) tushnIm AchmanaM

10) deha mArjana
( cleaning of upper body till navel )


12) snAnanagabhuta tarpan
( oblations to gods, manes , sages as a part of bathing )

13) avagAhanaM+snAna
( actual bathe )

14) upasthAnaM

15) vastra dhAranaM
( wearing of panchkacchaM )




Animesh’s blog

काठक ग्रहेष्टि ब्राह्मण

kAThaka grihyeshThi brAhman is one of fragmentary  portion of large kAThaka brAhman . The Brahmana of kaTha shAkhA, originally consisting of 100 chapters (‘shatAadhyAyana‘), is available only in some fragments, unfortunately kAThaka brAhman is lost, what we have is nothing but handful fragments from larger treatise. The following brAhman describes a myth ( AkhyAna ) about importance of grihyeshThi and injunctions to be followed. Of course an AhitAgni (  installer of tretAgni ,who performs agnihotra daily  ) has right ( adhikAra ) to perform it .It is slightly parallel to nakshtraeshtI of taittirIya adherents but presiding deities are grahas .It is one of kAmyeshThis , whosoever performs this IshTi achieves  longevity , cattle , intelligence etc.

         ||  ब्राह्मण ||

ॐ देवाश् च वा असुराश् च समावद् एव यज्ञे ’कुर्वत यद् एव देवा अकुर्वत तद् असुरा अकुर्वत ते देवा एतानि ग्रहहविंष्य् अपश्यं स् तैर् इन्द्रम् अयाजयंस् तद् असुरा नान्ववायंस् ततो देवा अभवन् परासुरा अभवन् य एवं विद्वान् एतानि ग्रहहवी ँसि यजते भ्रातृव्यस्य् आनन्ववायाय भवत्य् आत्मना परास्य भ्रातृव्यो भवत्य् आदित्याय घृते चरुं निर्वपेत् तेजस् तेन परिक्रीणाति शौक्रं चरुं ब्रह्मवर्चसं तेन परिक्रीणाति बृहस्पतये नैवारं पयसि चरुं वाक्पत्यं तेन परिक्रीणाति बुधाय नवकपालं बुद्धिं तेन परिक्रीणाति भौमायैककपालं यशस् तेन परिक्रीणाति सौराय पललमिश्रं घृते चरुं सुरभिं तेन परिक्रीणाति चन्द्रमसे पञ्चदश कपालं आयुस् तेन परिक्रीणाति राहवे चरुम् अभयं तेन परिक्रीणाति केतवे चरुम् अनपरोधं तेन परिक्रीणात्य् एतान्य् एव सर्वाणि भवति य एवं विद्वान् एतया यजेत।
आज्येनोपहोमाञ् जुहोत्य् आशिष् आम् अवरुद्ध्या एतया यजेत यः कामयेत तेजस्वी भ्राजस्वी वाक्पतिर् बुद्धिमान् यशस्वी सुरभिर् आयुष्मान् अभय्यनपरोधी स्याम् इत्य् एकचक्रम् उदयाद् भ्राजमानम् इत्य् अष्टादश याज्यानुवाक्या भवन्ति सरूपत्वायाग्निर् हिरण्यं सोमो हिरण्यम् इत्य् आज्यभागौ प्रेद्धो अग्न इमो अग्न इति सं याज्ये उच्चैर् यजत्य् एषा वै वाचाम् उत्तमा योच्चैर् उत्तमः समानानां भवत्य् आदित्यस् तेजस्वीत्य् उपहोमञ् जुहोति सर्वस्याप्त्यै सर्वस्यावरुद्ध्यै य एवं विद्वान् एतया यजेत॥

               ग्रहेष्टि मंत्राः

“अदित्यस् तेजस्वीत्य् उपहोमाञ् जुहोति।”

                ||  ग्रहमंत्राः ||

(  प्रजापति ऋषि  | यजु | ग्रह देवत्य )

ॐ आदित्यस् तेजस्वी तेजो अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥१॥

ॐ शुक्रो भ्राजस्वी भ्राजो अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥२॥

ॐ बृहस्पतिर् वाक्पतिर् वाचो अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥३॥

ॐ बुधो बुद्धिमान् बुद्धिम् अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥४॥

ॐ अर्को यशस्वी यशो अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥५॥

ॐ सौरः सुरभिः सुरभिम् अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥६॥

ॐ चन्द्रमा आयुष्मान् आयुर् अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥७॥

ॐ राहुर् अभयम् अभयम् अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥८॥

ॐ केतुर् अनपरोध्य् अनपरोधम् अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥९॥

     || अन्य मंत्र द्वयम् ||

   ( प्रजापति ऋषि  | यजु | ध्रुव )

ॐ ध्रुवो धैर्यवान् धैर्यम् अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥१०॥

   ( प्रजापति ऋषि  | यजु | अगस्त्य )

ॐ अगस्त्यो वीर्यवान् वीर्यम् अस्मिन् यज्ञे यजमाने दधातु॥११॥

( द्वयस्य प्रजापति ऋषि  | बृहती | अग्निवैश्वनार )

ॐ प्रेद्धो अग्ने दीदिहि पुरो नो यत्र देवाः पूर्वे पुराणाः ॥ यत्रासौ वैश्वानरः स्तोकातिथिस् तत्रेमं यज्ञं यजमानं च धेहि॥१॥

ॐ इमो अग्ने वीततमानि हव्या प्रेदं हविः प्राष्ट्रेमान् स्तोकान्।स्तोकातिथिः स्तोकजूतिः पतत्र्य् अथा ह्य् अग्ने अमृतत्वं च धेहि॥२।|
           ||  सुसंपूर्णम् ||

Animesh’s blog

kaTha rudrIya

SrI rUdraM is one of the most popular hymns of vedas.
Commonly recited versions are taittarIya in south India ( famously known as SrI rUdraM / श्री रुद्रम् ) and vAjasaneya in north India ( famously known as rUdrAshtadhyAyI ).
The “kaTha rudrIya” is kAthaka ( charaka ) version of SrI rUdraM .

namakaM is housed in kAthaka samhitA under title ” dhruvakshitiH ” , sthAnaka 17 , anuvAka 11-16 , mantra 32-70.
chamakaM is  housed in kAthaka samhitA  under title ” chamAH “, sthAnaka 18 , anuvAka 6-9 , mantra 56-63.

It is commonly recited by families of kashmiri brAhmans.( This is preserved in very well manner by  tradition of kaTha dIkShita-s who were shrauta ritualists as well as well accomplished tantrics )
kaTha rudrIya is generally recited in ekashrutI mode due to distorted learning of kAthaka shAkhA. .Yet some people use to vibrate there voice at evey countering uddAta .Better to quote chArAyanIya sikshA


It is accented in typical style of kAthaka samhitA wher only uddAta svara is marked by vertical bar over the word .
It possess two parts

1) namakaM :-

This portion describes the name or epithets of rUdra, which represent his aspects.
This portion have  mantras describing different aspects of lord rUdra in both peaceful (shAnta ) and terrible ( Ugra ) forms. Additionally, the devotee asks for the benevolent aspect of shiva to be invoked rather than the terrible aspect and requests forgiveness of sins. The original context of the namakaM according to kAthaka srauta sutra  is in shatarUdrIya homa of agnichayan ritual.

2) chamakaM :-

The second part of the text  asks God for fulfillment of wishes. The repeated phrase, cha-me literally means, “and to me [be this granted]”, accompanied by a list of desirables, which are primarily necessary appurtenances for Vedic sacrifices.
The original context of the chamakaM according to kAthaka srauta sutra  is the piling up of the fire-altar of chayan . The hymn invokes, apart from agni and vishnu at the beginning, a pantheon of Vedic deities that are successively linked with Indra to enable the yajamAna or sacrificer/patron to successfully perform Vedic fire sacrifices . It can be interpreted both as a preparatory for a physical external sacrificial ritual, and the inner, possibly yogic sacrifice involving prAnic control, since the yogic “vital airs” are explicitly mentioned as sacrificial adjuncts chamakaM.


Om asya srI katha rudrIyasya , katha RishI, nAnA chhandAsI,
katha rUdro devatA , srI sAmbasadAshiva prasAda shiddhyartE jape vinIyoga ||


paramashiva rUpa dhyAna :-

nAnA-kalpAbhirAmApaghanam-abhi-matArtha-pradaM suprasannaM |
padaMasthaM pa~nchavaktraM sphaTika-maNi-nibhaM pArvatIshaM namAmI ||

One mediates on sadAshiva rUpa thus:

bibhrad dorbiH kuTAraM mR^igaM abhaya-varau suprasanno maheshaH sarvAla~NkAra-dIptaH sarasija-nilayo vyAghra-charmAttvAsAH |
dhyeyo muktAparAgAmR^ita-rasa-kalitAdri-prabhaH pa~nchavaktras-tryAkShaH koTIrakoTI-ghaTita-tuhina-rochiH kalottu~Nga-mauliH ||
sadyo vedAkShamAlA .abhaya-varadakaraH kunda-mandAra-gauro vAmaH kAshmIra-varNo .abhaya varada parashva .akShamAlA-vilAsI |
akSha-srag-veda-pAshA-.a~Nkusha-Damaruka-khaTvA~Nga-shUlAn kapAlaM bibhrANo bhIMa-daMSTro .a~njana-ruchira-tanur-bhItidashchA .apyaghoraH ||
vidyud-varNA .atha vedA .abhaya-varada kuThArAn dadhat pUruShAkhyaH proktAH sarve trinetrA vidhR^itamukha-chatuShkAsh-chatur-bAhavashcha |
muktA-gauro .abhayeShTAdhika-kara-kamalo .aghorataH pa~nchavaktras-tvIsho dhyeyo .ambujanmodbhava-muraripu-rudreshvarAH syuH shivAntAH ||

One pray to shiva thus by

vishva-grAsAya vilasat-kAla-kUTa-viShAshine |
tat-kala~NkA~Nkita-grIva-nIlakaNThAya te namaH ||

daMShTrA-karAlaM divi nR^ityamAnaM hutAsha-vaktraM jvalanArka-rUpaM |
sahasra-pAdAkShi-shirobhi yuktaM bhavantam-ekaM praNamAmi rudraM ||
namo.astu somAya su-madhyamAya namo.astu devAya hiraNya-bAho |
namo.agni-chandrArka-vilochanAya namo.ambikAyAH pataye mR^iDAya ||





tasmai te deva bhavAya sharvAya pashupataya ugrAya devAya mahate devAya rudrAyeshAnAyAshanaye namaH (svAhA ) ||




Animesh’s blog

kAthak sandhyAvandan prayoga

SandhyAvandana is a basic ritual that a brAhman should observe  after upanayan till death .The tradition of kaThas ( kashmiri brAhmans )
) is  declining fast.
I have used a ritual manual of satIsara vidwAns for this study.
There are several akshara ashuddhis ( peculiarities due to pronunciation ) in manual .Yet I have not corrected them because they are due to pronunciation “what they pronounce they had written that with out concerning authentic text ” .
SandhyAvandan of kaThaka yajurvedins have been described at last with instructions in Hindi for every step.
The mantras used in
are from kAThaka samhitA and are unaccented.
A small tantric influence is also there. I was unable to trace any authentic source for this kAthaka sandhyA prayoga .Only tradition followed by satIsara brAhmans
( satIsara brAhmans are one among subdivisions of kashmiri brAhmans ) was source for this prayoga .
I’m also not aware of any variation due to family traditions, region , subdivision among kAthakas .
Even kashmiri brAhmans have peculiar names for this steps which are against the standard names and are quite misleading and confusing.( for example they use word tarapan for dropping the water i.e. vinIyoga )
This peculiarities are due to not well preserved written text and consciousness living tradition.







Animesh’s blog