अथर्ववेद पैप्पलादशाखीय अन्नप्राशन प्रयोग ( aTharva veda paippalAda shAkhIya annaprAshana prayoga )

ततः तम् ओदनं कांस्यभाजने  घृतपायसपूपदधिगुडादिनानाव्यञ्जनसहितं  कृत्वा  तस्य  समीपे हिरण्यपुस्तकमृत्तिकादीन्  यथाकुलधर्मेणोपकल्पयेत्  शान्त्युदकेनाचमनाभ्युक्षण च  ॐ  शिवौ तेस्तां  (PS-१६.४.८-९)  व्रीहियवौ ऋग्भ्यां  प्रथमप्राशनेन  कुमारं  प्रशयेत्  |  ॐ  शिवौ  ते  स्तां  व्रीहियवौ अबलासाव्  अधोमधौ |  एतौ  यक्ष्मं  वि  बाधेते  एतौ  मुञ्चतो  माश्हसः    ||१||  (PS  १६.४.८)  यद्  अश्नासि  यद् पिबसि  धान्यं  कृष्याः  पयः  |  यद्  आद्यं  यद्  अनाद्यं  सर्वं  ते  अन्नम् अविषं  कृणोमि  ||२||  (PS  १६.४.९)  ततः  अह्ने  चत्वा  (PS  १६.४.१०)  इत्य्  ऋचा  अहोरात्राभ्यां  त्वा तु  परिददामीति  उक्त्वा  अहोरात्राभ्याम्  अग्रम्  अन्नं  प्राशयेत्  |    द्वितीयं  प्राशनं  इदं  |  ॐ  अह्ने  च  त्वा  रात्रये    चोभाभ्यां  परि  दध्मसि  | अरायेभ्यो  जिघत्सुभ्य  इमं नः परि  रक्षता    (PS  १६.४.१०)  |  ततः    शरदे  त्वा  (PS  १६.५.२)  मन्त्रेण  ऋतुभः  परिददामीत्य्  उक्त्वा  | ददाति  |  प्राशनम्  इदं  तृतीयम्  |  शरदे  त्वा  हेमन्ताय  वसन्ताय  ग्रिष्माय  परिदध्मसि | वर्षाणि  तुभ्यं  स्योनानि  येषु  वर्द्धन्त  ओषधिः  |  (PS  १६.५.२)  ततः  यथामुखं बालकं  प्राशयेत्  |  तदनन्तरं  बालकं  हिरण्यादीन्  उपढौकयेत्  |  बालकः    यद्वस्तुं संगृह्नाति  स  तस्य  भाजनम्  इति  जानीयात्  |  ततः नक्षत्रकल्पोक्तं  उत्तरतन्त्रं  स्वस्तिवाचनञ्च  कुर्य्यात्  |  लोकस्तु व्रीहियवान् एव  कांस्यादिपत्रे  निधाय  ॐ  शिवौ  ते  स्ताम्  इति  मन्त्रेण  प्राशनं  कारयति |

||  इति कर्मसमुच्चये   सप्तजातसंस्थाध्याये अन्नप्राशनं  ||

Next  he  mixes in  a  copper  pot  this  rice  with  various  flavours  such  as  ghee,  milk,  wheat,  sour  milk,  and molasses.  Near  this pot  he  gets  ready  a  piece  of  gold,  a  book,  clods  of  earth,  etc,  as  per the  family’s  custom,  and having  done the  sipping  and  the  sprinkling  with  pacifying  water he  should  feed  the  child  with  the  first  solid  food  while  reciting  the  two  verses  of  the  hymn “Propitious  to  thee  be  the  rice  and  barley”  (PS  16.4.8-9).  “Propitious  to  thee  be  rice  and barley,  free  from  balAsa,  causing  no  burning;  these  drive  off  the  yakshama;  these  free  from distress.  What  thou eatest,  what  thou drinkest,  of  grain,  milk of  the  ploughing what  should be  eaten,  what  should  not  be  eaten all  food  I  make  for  thee  poisonless.”  (PS  16.4.8-9)  Next,  with  the  verse  “Both  to  day  and  to  night”  (PS  16.4.10),  having  uttered “I  commend  you  to  day  and  night!”,  he  should  feed the  child the  first  bite for the  sake of  the  day and  night.  This  is  the  second  feeding.  “Both  to  day  and  to  night,  to  them  both we  commit  thee.  Defend  ye  this  man  for  me  from  the Arayas  that  seek  to  devour him .” (PS  16.4.10) Next,  with  the  mantra  “Unto  autumn  thee”  (PS  16.5.2),  having uttered  “I  commend  you  to  the  seasons!”  he  gives the  child  a  bite.  This  is  the  third feeding.  “Unto  autumn,  unto  winter,  unto  spring,  unto  summer,  we  commit  thee;  [be]  the rains  pleasant  to  thee,  in  which  the  herbs  grow.”  (PS  16.5.2)  Next,  he  should feed  the  child  as  per  the  latter’s  capacity.  Afterwards  he  should  offer  the  child  gold,  etc. The  thing  that  child  grasps,  that  is  his  share,  thus  it  is  known.  Next,  he  should  perform  the second  part  of  the  tantra,  which  is  prescribed  by  the  nakshatra kalpa ,  and  the  recitation  of auspicious verses.  Nevertheless  people  put  only  rice  and  barley  in  a  copper  pot  and  so  on and  with  the  hymn  “Propitious  to  thee  be  the  rice  and  barley”  (PS  16.4.8-9)  perform  the first  feeding. 

|| Hence concludes in karmasamuchhaya , jAtasaMsTha chapter , the annaprAshana ||

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charaka kaThas , kAnvas and atharvavedins of kAmarUpa desha

The earliest description of brAhman civilization in Eastern India ( kAmarUpa desha )   is tracedback in several purans ( kAlikA purAn , skanda purAn, kartoyA mahAtmaya ) and tantra granthas.( yoginI tantra , kAmakhya tantra , vArAhI tantra ). According to the tradition Lord ‘vAraha’ and goddess ‘bhumI’  had a son ‘ naraka'( bhAuma ). vAraha bhagavAn coronated  ‘ naraka’ for kingdom of kAmarUpa desha with prAgajyotishpura as capital. He was first to invite brAhmans to his kingdom i.e. Eastern India .Several brAhmans well versed in  vedas, tantras, puranas , shAstras, astrology and astronomy  were settled in kAmarUpa desha by him. By curse of sage vashisTha due to cause of  not honouring him, his kingdom got demolished. Although it’s kind of myth, yet ‘naraka-bhAuma’ have pseudo relation as founder ( mula purUsha ) with  bhAuma dynasty but no factual record of this. Afterward in copper inscriptions of  bhAuma dynasty /varman dynasty( descends of naraka- bhAuma  ) we find name,  gotra , shAkhA , pravara of these brAhmans who were settled in kAmarUpa desha. nidhanpur copper inscription by king bhAskara varma (600-650 CE ) was a renewal of  lost copper inscription of  land grant  (bhumI dAna) to 205 brAhmans by king bhutI varman ( 518-542 CE ) .From ‘nidhanpur copper’ inscription , we came to know that followers of five shAkhAs were settled in kAmarUpa desha namely .

1) Rigveda- brihavacha ( shAkal ) shAkhA

2) Shukla yajurveda-mAdhyandina shAkhA

3) krishna yajurveda –
1. taittirIya shAkhA (with Apastamba sutra)
2. charaka kaTha shAkhA

4) samaveda- chhAndoga shAkhA  ( kAuthuma )

The number of charaka kaThas was only six out of 205 brAhmans.That clearly show , kaThas were a minority shAkhA group. These seven brAhmans were

1) kushmAnda patra swAmIn ( 40/305 , vatsa gotra )
2) sAdhU swAmin
( 51/205 , pArasharya gotra  )
3) chandraprakAsha swAmIn
( 95/ 205 , samkrUtiyAyana gotra )
4) pramodasena swAmIn
( 120/205 , gargya gotra )
5) somasena swAmIn
(121/205 , gargya gotra )
6) ghoshsena swAmIn
(123/205 , gargya gotra )
7) Ishwara datta swAmIn
( 40/205 , vatsa gotra )

All these four gotras are mentioned in chAranIya pravarAdhyAya so no doubt they all were transmigrated  kaThas from kashmIra desha. .  Last three brAhman (except last ) mentioned were relatives or sagotras as there surname and gotras are identical.
All this land grants were made near the chandrapurI .And these brAhmans were settled in a colony called ‘ mayurshAmala .In the Agrahara mentioned above they lived for generations .When in course of time the original copper-plate was destroyed, the officers of the State proceeded to levy taxes on the lands. There upon the descendants of the grantees came to karanasuvarana and explained their case to jyesthabhadra, who was the officer-in-charge there.The new copperplate was issued by bhAsakara varmana  .
Interestingly not a single atharvavedin is mentioned in this inscription. Probably till 5th century not a single atharvavedin was present in
kAmarUpa desha .Later king bhAskara varma attempted to settled atharvavedins ( mostly nAgara brAhmans from guRjar desha , with paippalAda recension ) and kAnva shAkhAadhyAyins in  kAmarUpa desha . Later with the establishment of the bhAuma dynasty in Orissa many of the descendants of  the brAhmans to whom grants of land had been made, migrated there. ( that’s the reason why Utkala desha have preserved paippalAda and kAnva tradition ) Unfortunately the paippalAda and kAnva tradition got extinct in kAmarUpa desha but is preserved in utkala desha .

The’ neulpur grant ‘of subhakara deva ( about 7th century ) enlists names of  atharvavedins  in kAmarUpa desha, who were granted lands.

image

The list of gotra and pravara of this  brAhmans matches with that of nAgara brAhmans.( courtesy of a treaties named as  nAgara pushpAnjalI ).
pAninI , gaurIsrvasa ,vasisTha, sAndilya , paippalAyana, paippalAda , parAsharya, darbhya are most frequent gotras ( generally all with 3 pravaras )
among atharvavedins .
In the copper plate grant of king valavarma  of kAmarUpa there is reference to a sectionof Brahmins belonging to the kAnva shAkhA with the surname dhara and of kapila gotra. Another grant was made by  king ratnapAla to kAnvashAkhins of parAshara gotra and bhAradwAja gotra.
Several other copper grant plates mentions of kAnvashAkhins of kAshyapa, vishwAmitra gotra.

Conclusion

Due to effort of various kings different shAkhA brAhmans were settled  in kAmarUpa as they were living form of vedic dharama ( murta rUpa ) .For establishment and advancement of any kingdom ( dharma rAjya )  this living encyclopedias were must , they were the torch bearers of vedic dharma who propagated vedic dharma in north east.
Better to end with words of periyvA” ….. So long as the Brahmin possessed sattva-guna (the quality of goodness and purity) and so long as he kept the Vedic tradition going and lived a simple life, others recognized his value for society. They regarded him with affection and respect and paced their trust in him. They realised that if society was not afflicted by famine and disease (as in the case today), it was because the sound of the Vedas pervaded everywhere and the performance of Vedic recites created a healthy atmosphere around and brought its own blessings.  ”

Bibliography

1) yogini  tantra
2) kamakhyatantra
3) Social History of kamarupa ( volume 3 ) , Nagendranatha basu
4) Nagara pushpanjali
5) Brahmanopatti martanda  , Harikrishna sharma ( bombay edition )

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