Complete English Translation of nilamata purANaM

                            The Nilamata Purana

by Dr. Ved Kumari

                        Jammu and Kashmir Academy of
                        Art, Culture and Languages,

          Om auspiciousness. Salutation to the auspicious Ganesa.
                 Salutation to the venerable Vasudeva Om.

1-2. Having paid homage to the god Hari – the abode of Sri, the giver of
boons, the highest lord, the master of three worlds, the finder of cow
(earth), the imperishable and the unchangeable – the honourable king
Janamejaya, the supporter of the family of Pariksita, asked Vyasa’s pupil

3. Janamejaya (said): “Kings of various countries – the great heroes – came to
the great Bharata war of my forefathers.

4-5. Say, why did not the king of Kasmira come there? Why was that king not
chosen by the sons of Pandu and Dhrtarastra? The region of Kasmira, of course,
occupies an important place in the world.

6. Vaisampayana (said): “Accompanied by his four-fold armies (the king of
Kasmira) went to the Svayamvara to fight with Madhava, the son of Vasudeva.

7. A fight between him and the wise Vasudeva took place there as had taken
place between Naraka and Vasudeva.

8-9. Consequently he was thrown down by Vasudeva in that good combat. Out of
respect for that country, Vasudeva coronated his pregnant queen, so that the
posthumous son might rule.

10. Afterwards, she gave birth to a male child who was named Gonanda. Being a
child, he was brought neither by the Pandavas nor by the Kauravas.”

11. Janamejaya (spoke): “O best among the twice-born, why did the high-minded
Vasudeva honour (so much) the country that he himself coronated a woman?”

12- 13. Vaisampayana (said): “O best amongst the kings, the goddess Uma is the
same as Kasmira. What was formerly, an enjoyable, heart-enrapturing lake for
six Manvantaras since the beginning of the Kalpa, became a beautiful territory
in this Manvantara.

14-16. Filled with rows of rice-fields, fully thriving and endowed with good
fruits etc., inhabited by the people who perform sacrifices and are engaged in
self-study and contemplation – virtuous ascetics well-versed in the Vedas and
the Vedangas – by highly prosperous Ksatriyas adept in (the use of) all the
arms and weapons, by Vaisyas engaged in (earning) the means of livelihood, and
by Sudras serving the twice-born, it is bedecked with the temples of the gods
and all the holy places, and is auspicious.

17. 0 protector of men! all the sacred places, which are on the earth, are
there. Thronged with the hermitages of the sages (it is) pleasant in heat and
cold and is auspicious.

18. Unconquerable by the enemy-kingdoms, ignorant of the fears born of them,
rich in cows, horses. elephants etc. it is devoid of the fear of famines.

19. Not dependent on rains, enjoyable, holy, beneficial for living beings,
endowed with the qualities (of producing) all grains, it is devoid of dangers
and is thickly populated.

20. Possessed of the grace like that of a temple due to the (presence of)
tender ladies, it is devoid of evil serpents, tigers, buffaloes and bears.

21. Always full of festivals, twangings of the bows and the sounds of the
Vedic recitals, it is crowded with ever-sportive men and is surrounded by ever
happy persons.

22. Full of gardens and pleasure-groves and resounding with the sounds of
drums and lutes, it is always crowded with people fond of drinks and is dear
to the hearts of good men.

23. Laden with various types of flowers, fruits, trees, creepers and medicinal
herbs, it is full of hosts of wild beasts and is enjoyed by the Siddhas and
the Caranas.

24-25. O controller of the enemies, the holy region of Kasmira is possessed of
all the sacred places. There are sacred lakes of the Nagas and the holy
mountains; there are holy rivers and also the holy lakes; there are highly
sacred temples and also the hermitages attached to them.

26. In the center flows, making as it were the parting of the hair, the
Vitasta – the highest goddess visibly born of the Himalaya.”

27. Janamejaya (asked): “O Twice-born, how did that which was a pure lake in
former Manvantaras, become a province in Vaivasvata (Manvantara)?”

28-29. Vaisampayana (replied): “O best of the kings, once in olden days, the
excellent king Gonanda enquired the same point from Brhadasva after
worshipping him who had reached there in the course of a pilgrim’s journey”.

30. Gonanda (asked): ‘There did not exist, in the previous Manvantaras, this
country named Kasmira How did it come into being in Vaivasvata Period?’

31-33. Brhadasva(spoke): ‘The passage of the sun through one sign of the
zodiac is called a solar month. Two months should be known as a season and
three seasons as an Ayana. Similarly, two Ayanas make one year and O king, the
years, numbering four lacs and thirty two thousands, make Kaliyuga. Twice as
much as this, O king, is Dvapara. Thrice-multiplied is Treta and four times
multiplied should be known as Krta.

34. Of seventy one Caturyugas is called one Manvantara here.

35. At the end of that Manvantara, all the movable, and immovable creations on
the earth are destroyed completely.

36-38. 0 lord of the earth, this whole world then turns into a sea. The
mountains Himavat, Hemakuta, Nisadha, Nila, Sveta, Srngavat, Meru, Malyavat,
Gandhamadana, Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Suktimat, Rksavat, Vindhya and
Pariyatra are not destroyed. The whole of the rest of Jambudvipa is effaced

39. Then, after the destruction of this world, the lord Mahadeva himself, in
the form of water, stays all around this world.

40-41. At that time, the goddess Sati assumes the form of a boat and the
future Manu, through magical power, places all the seeds in that (boat).
Having assumed the form of a fish, Visnu – the father of the world – drags off
that boat by means of (His) horn.

42. 0 protector of the earth, the God, having drawn off the boat, fastens that
to the top of that mountain and goes to an unknown state.

43. 0 king, see in this western region, this mountain-peak called Naubandhana,
holy and destroyer of sins and fears.

44. 0 controller of the enemies, when the period equal to hat of Krta passes
away, then Manu brings about the creation of beings as before.

45-46. The goddess Sati, with the body in the form of the boat, becomes the
earth and on that earth comes into being a lake of clear water, known as
Satidesa, six Yojanas long and half of that in breadth, enjoyable,
heart-enrapturing, and the sporting-place of the gods.

47. Deep like the sky, bright with lotuses containing cool and clear water, it
is the most charming (lake) on the whole earth.

48-49. 0 king, at the approach of this Vaivasvata Manvantara, Daksa gave his
thirteen daughters to Kasyapa, the son of Marica.

O best of the kings, listen to their names from me. The sons of Aditi are the
gods and those of Diti are the Daityas.

50. (The son) of Danayusa is Vrtra and (the sons) of Surabhi are the Bhadras.
The Yaksas and the Raksasas are regarded to be the sons of Khasa.

51. Airavana is the son of Ira; ten Gayanas are (the sons) of Prava and the
celestial host of the Apsaras is born of Muni.

52. The Kalakalpas and the Kalakeyas are regarded to be the sons of Kala. The
Danavas are the sons of Danu, and of Krodha are born ten daughters.

53. 0 king, the Nagas are the sons of Kadru, and Garuda and Aruna – the best
among the birds – are the two sons of Vinata.

54. Kadru and Vinata, jealous of each other were, as was destined, always at
daggers drawn.

55-57. Once, seeing the horse Uccaihsravas born of the water, Vinata
pronounced that to be white, while Kadru, bent on doing mischief, said to
Vinata “I, by all means regard that horse as possessed of black hair.” O lord
of the earth, then both of them betted complete slavery of each other with
reference to that horse. Persuaded thus by Kadru (her) sons did the same.

58. Afterwards both of them saw that excellent horse as black-haired, and
Kadru said to beautiful Vinata, “You have been won over”.

59. Highly glorious and highly strong Garuda rescued Vinata who had been won
over as a slave, by bringing Soma from Indra.

60. From Indra he obtained the boon of eating the Nagas. He ate up the
Pannagas as a consequence of their enmity to his mother.

61. While the Nagas were being eaten by the high-minded Garuda, Vasuki sought
the protection of Janardana, the god of the gods.

62. Vasuki said: “Salutation to you, O unfathomable supreme god! Salutation to
you, O holder of bow, mace and sword in your hands! Salutation to you, the
destroyer of the Danavas! Salutation to you praised by the lotus-born

63. Salutation to you engaged in good of the world! Salutation to you, the
pleaser of Indra! Salutation to you, the giver of boons to the devotees!
Salutation to you, the demonstrator of the right path.

64-65. I have approached the god possessed of a beautiful colour like the
lustre of the fully bloomed blue lotus, clad in two garments like the glowing
gold, sinless, worthy of being solicited, having lotus-like feet placed in
(the lap of) the daughter of the sea, highest, earliest and eternal. I
prostrate myself with devotion to that first god.

66. You lie on Sesa’s pure hood variegated with thousand jewels of rows of the
heads. Thinking about the good and evil of the whole world, O god, protect me

67. O infinite, the lord of the birds, possessed of highly fierce and dreadful
speed, is destroying my family rapidly. O praised by the excellent sages, you
check that Tarksya whose strength is like that of the wind. Protect me today”.

68-69. Brhadasva (said): The venerable god said to Vasuki who was agitated
with fear: “O possessed of unparalleled strength, you along with the pious
Nagas may dwell in the country of Sati, in the sky-like lake of holy water.

70. The enemy of the serpents shall not kill those serpents who will make
their abode in that lake.

71. O lord of the Nagas, my mount – the enemy of the Nagas – shall not kill
him who, with his abode in the country of Sati, dwells unthreatened from all

72. O highly fortunate one, coronate Nila in the kingdom of those highly
strong Nagas who shall dwell in the country of Sati.”

73. Vasuki did as was stated by the god of gods. Then there remained no fear
of Garuda for the Nagas who stayed there.

74. O best among the kings, the lotus-eyed Indra accompanied by Paulomi was
sporting once on the bank of that lake.

75. Induced by Time (i.e. Death) a Daitya-chief named Sangraha who was
exceedingly difficult of being conquered, came there while Indra was sporting.

76. The semen of that (demon) who had seen Saci, was discharged in that
reservoir of water. Mad, due to being subject to passion and desirous of
carrying away Saci…

77. Thereafter, the year was over in that fight against Indra. The fight
between both of them – Indra and Sangraha – continued for one year.

78. Having killed him at the end of the year, the god Indra received honour
from the gods and went to heaven while being worshipped by those who have
their abodes in heaven.

79. A child was born in the waters out of that evil-minded Sangraha’s
discharged semen which had fallen in that lake.

80. Due to compassion, the Nagas brought up that child in the waters. As he
was born in the water so he was called Jalodbhava (water-born).

81. Having propitiated the god Pitamaha with penance, he obtained from him a
(triple) boon, viz, immortality in the water, magical power and unparalleled

82-83 Having obtained the magical power, that Daitya- chief devoured the human
beings who lived in various countries near that lake, viz., the inhabitants of
Darvabhisara, Gandhara and Juhundara, the Sakas, the Khasas, the Tanganas, the
Mandavas, the Madras and the inhabitants of Antargiri and Bahirgiri.

84. Harassed by that sinner, they fled away in fear from the country and he
roamed fearlessly in those desolate lands.

85. At this very time, the venerable sage Kasyapa travelled over the whole
earth in connection with holy pilgrimage.

86-97. In this holy Bharatavarsa – the giver of the reward of good and evil –
(he visited) auspicious Puskara, difficult of access and giver of the world of
Brahma, Prayaga, teeming with sacrifices and destroyer of all sins,
Kuruksetra, the field of piety, Naimisa, the destroyer of sins, Hayasirsa, the
holy abode of high-souled Fathers, the celestial Carankata, the remover of all
sins, the holy Varaha mountain, the holy Pancanada, Kalanjana along with
Gokarna, Kedara along with Mahalaya, Badhirasrama, the holy abode of Narayana,
Sugandha, Satakumbha, Kalikasrama, Sakambhari, Lalitika, Saligrama, Prthudaka,
Suvarnaksa, Rudrakoti, Prabhasa, Sagarodaka, Indramarga, Matanga-vapi, the
destroyer of sins, the holy Agastyasrama, Tandulikasrama, the holy Jambumarga,
the holy Varanasi, the holy goddess Ganga, daughter of Jahnu and girdle of the
sky, Yamuna, the destroyer of the noose of Yama, the swift-flowing Satadru,
the Sarayu, possessed of the sacrificial posts, the goddess Sarasvati, the
Godavari, the Vaitarani, the Gomati, the Bahuda, the Vedasmrti, the Asi along
with the Varna, the Tamravarnotpalavati, the Sipra along with the Narmada, the
Gona, the great river Parosni, the Iksumati, the Saratta, the Durga, the
Jatasila, the Kaveri, the Brahmani, the Gauri, the Kampana the Tamasa,
Gangasagara Sandhi and Sindhu sagarasangama.

98-99. 0 king, (he visited also) the Bhrgutunga, the Visala, Kubjamra, the
Raivataka, Kusavarta at Gangadvara, Bilvaka, the mountain Nila, the holy place
Kanakhala and other sacred places.

100. Having heard that Kasyapa was on a religious tour, Nila – the king of the
serpents – went to the sacred place Kanakhala for seeing him.

101. Having reached there, that king of the serpents saw his father, pressed
his feet and saluted him after announcing his own name.

102. The father smelled his forehead and honoured him in the proper manner.
Directed then by him (the father), he sat on the matting made of Kusa grass.

103. 0 king, listen to what the seated Naga communicated respectfully to the
father Kasyapa, the abode of all penances.

104. ‘Having heard that you – lover of Dharma (piety) – are visiting the
sacred places, I, with a desire to serve, have immediately approached your

105. O Brahman, all the sacred places in the eastern, the southern and the
western (part of the) country have been seen by you. Let us go now to the
northern direction.

106. O honour-giver, there are holy places of pilgrimage in Madra country and
on the Himalaya – the best of the mountains.

107-8. (There is) the auspicious Vipasa, the pacifier of sins and giver of
eternal bliss, the river Devahrada, a bath in which gives the heaven, the
sin-removing god Hara Haririsvara and the holy confluence near Karavirapura.

109. At that place the Devahrada joins the Vipasa, the best of the rivers. In
the Vipasa, there is the perpetually holy Kalikasrama.

110-11. (There is) the holy Iravati, the destroyer of all Sins. Sixty thousand
sacred places dwell in single Iravati, specially in Revati (Naksatra) and on
the eighth day (of a fortnight).

112-13. (There are) Kumbhavasunda possessed of holy water, the river Devika
possessed of holy water, the great river Visvamitra which is sacred always,
(the river) called Udda which is highly sacred and the various confluences (of
the rivers). The religious merit (lies) in the Iravati and also in the Devika.

114-118. Brought down by your honour for doing favour to the Madras, it is the
goddess Uma who is famous on the earth as Devika and by seeing whom a man
certainly becomes purified in this world. (There are) Indramarga, Somatirtha,
the holy Ambujana, Suvarnabindu, the auspicious abode of Hara, the
sin-destroying abode of Skanda, the highly sacred lord of Uma at Rudratirtha,
Durgadvara, possessed of holy water, Kotitirtha, the sacred place of Rudra,
Kamakhya and Puspanyasa. 0 honour-giver, (there is) Hamsapada pronounced as
holy and so also Rsirupa.

119. In the area extending over four krosas, there is Devikatirtha at all the
places where every well and pool is holy in all respects.

120. (There is) the sacred river Apaga and the holy Tausi which pleases the
sun. There is the Candrabhaga the best of the rivers – whose water is cool
like the rays of the moon.

121. Vaivatitlamukha is the meritorious holy place of the Candrabhaga and so
also is the sin-destroying Sankhamardala.

122. (There are) Guhyesvara, Satamukha, Istikapatha, the holy Kadambesa and
the area around it.

123. The area extending from the holy Satamukhaupto the holy place Guhyesvara,
is equal, in holiness, to Varanasi or is even higher than that.

124. The great river Candrabhaga is always holy everywhere but is specially so
on the thirteenth of the bright half of Magha in conjunction with Pusya.

125. All the sacred places on the earth, including the seas and the lakes,
shall go to the Candrabhaga, on the thirteenth of the bright half of Magha.

126. Vastrapatha is stated to be holy and so also the god Chagalesvara, the
second Bhaumi and also her birth place.

127. The sacred place of the lake which is an incarnation of the body of Sati,
is the lake Visnupada famous Kramasara, the destroyer of all the sins.

128. O sage, please visit immediately these and other holy places by bathing
at which, even the evil-minded human beings are freed (from the sins).’

129. Brhadasva (said): Addressed thus he whose desire had already been
aroused, said “Let it be so” and went to those holy places in the company of

130. Having crossed the river-goddesses Yamuna and Sarasvati, he visited
Kuruksetra where Sanniti is famous.

131-132. O sinless, a multitude of the holy places is called Sanniti on the
earth. It is, verily, the spot to which all the tirthas including the seas and
the lakes always go in the end of the dark half of the month.

133. He, who performs Sraddha there at the time when the sun is eclipsed by
Rahu, obtains the best award of (performing) a thousand horse-sacrifices.

134. Having seen that Sanniti, (he saw) Cakratirtha also about which a verse
sung by Narada is current on the earth.

135. “Oh! the persistence of the people for the sun-eclipse! The religious
merit obtained at Cakratirtha is ten times more than the eclipse.

136. Having visited the sacred places called Cakra and Prthudaka, he saw the
holy Visnupada and Amaraparvata.

137. Afterwards, having crossed the rivers Satadru and Ganga, the sage reached
Arjuna’s hermitage and Devasunda.

138. Having crossed the illustrious and sin-destroying Vipasa, Kasyapa saw the
whole country desolate at that time.

139-140, Seeing the country of the Madras as desolate, he spoke to the Naga,
‘~O Nila, tell me – the inquirer – as to why this country of the Madras has
been deserted? This has always been charming, devoid of the calamity of famine
and full of the wealth of grains!”

141. Nila said: “O venerable one, all this is known to you that formerly a
demon-child named Jalodbhava – the son of Sangraha – was reared up by me.

142-143. Now that impudent fellow, who obtained boons from Brahma of
imperceptible birth, ignores me like anything and I am incapable of keeping
him under control due to the boon of the lord of three worlds.

144. By that villain of evil intellect – eater of human flesh – this whole
country of the Madras has been depopulated.

145-146. O lord, the countries rendered desolate by him are mainly
Darvabhisara, Gandhara, Juhundara, Antargiri, Bahirgiri and those of the
Sakas, the Khasas, the Tanganas and the Mandavas. O venerable one, make up
your mind to check him for the welfare of the world.

147. Brhadasva (spoke): Addressed thus he said “Be it so” and after taking
bath in the holy places all around, he came to that best limpid lake in the
country of Sati.

148. O king, after taking bath there, he gave up walking on foot and went to
the eternal world of Brahma, merely by his own power.

149-150. He went along with Nila, the high-souled king of the Nagas. O
controller of the enemies, both of them reached the abode of Brahma and made
obeisance to the lotus-born god and the gods Vasudeva, Isvara and highly
intelligent Ananta, who were present there by chance.

151-152. Honoured by them, these two told the activities of Jalodbhava
(Water-born). Then the god Pitamaha said to this Naga-lord and the sage of
unparalleled valour, “we shall go to Naubandhana to subdue him.

153. Then the god Kesava will undoubtedly kill him. “Having heard this, Hari,
the killer of the strong enemies, went (mounted on) Tarksya.

154. O sinless, after him went Hara, mounted on the bull, along with his wife.
Brahma went mounted on the swan and the two Nagas mounted on the cloud.

155. Kasyapa went by his supernatural power. Indra heard that and, in the
company of the hosts of gods, went to that place where Kesava had gone.

156-158. Yama, Agni, Varuna, Vayu, Kubera, Nirrti, Adityas, Vasus, Rudras,
Visvedevas and the hosts of Maruts; Asvins, Bhrgus, Sadhyas, the sons of
Angiras, the illustrious sages, Gandharvas, the hosts of heavenly maidens; all
the wives of the gods, the mothers of the gods, the hosts of Vidyadharas,
Yaksas, seas and rivers (all went there).

159. Ganga went mounted on crocodile, Yamuna on tortoise, Satadru on bull and
Sarasvati on buffalo.

160. 0 King! Vipasa (went) mounted on horse, Iravati on elephant, Candrabhaga
and Sindhu on tiger.

161. Devika (went) mounted on wild ox, Sarayu on deer, Mandakini on man and
Payosni on goat.

162. O king, Narmada (went) mounted on peacock, Gomati on Saranga deer,
Godavari on sheep and Kampana on swan.

163. O king, Gandaki (went) mounted on he crane, Kaveri on camel, the holy
Iksumati on crocodile and the holy Sita on she crane.

164. Lauhitya (went) mounted on Camara deer, Vanksu – the fast going one – on
Kroda (hog), Hladini on partridge and Hradini on cock.

165. Pavani (went) mounted on a horse, Sona on a serpent, Krsnaveni on cloud
and Bhuvena on hare.

166. These and other rivers also went mounted on their respective mounts. All
these, with a desire to see fight, followed the lord of the world.

167. Having reached Naubandhana, Kesava, verily, took a firm stand.

168. Hearing the sound of the retinue of the gods, the evil-minded demon,
knowing himself to be imperishable in the water, did not come out.

169. Having come to know that he would not come out, the pleased Madhusudana
entered Naubandhana, in the company of the gods.

170. Rudra (took stand) on Naubandhana peak, Hari on the Southern peak, Brahma
on the Northern peak and the gods and the Asuras followed them.

171. Thus, they entered the mountain. Then the pious- minded god Janardana,
with a view to kill the demon, said to Ananta:

172. “Breaking forth Himalaya today with the plough, make soon this lake
devoid of water.”

173. Brhadasva (said): Then Ananta, resembling a mountain and possessed of
lustre equal to that of the full moon, expanded himself, covering the earth
and the heaven and terrifying the hosts of demons all around.

174. Dressed in blue, wearing diadem fastened with gold, worshipped by all the
gods, he, broke forth Himalaya, the best of the mountains on earth, with

175-180. When the king of the best mountains had been broken, the water flowed
forth hurriedly with force, terrifying all the beings with its violent rush
and sound and overflowing the tops of the mountains with curved waves like
Himalaya touching the sky. When the water of the lake was disappearing,
Water-born practiced magic. He created darkness all around. O hero among men,
the world became quite invisible.

Then the god Siva held the sun and the moon in his two hands. In a twinkling
of the eye, the world was brought to light and all the darkness was destroyed.

When the darkness had vanished, unfathomable Hari, assuming another body with
the power of Yoga, fought with the demon and witnessed that fight through a
different body.

There was a terrible fight between Visnu and the demon, with trees and peaks
of mountains. All those hosts of gods… (Hari) cut off, forcibly, the head of
the demon and then Brahma obtained gratification.

181. Brahma, Visnu and Sambhu gave their own names to the peaks on which they
had taken their stand, on the earth.

182-183. O best among men, they said to the high peaks of the high-souled king
of the mountains: “Whoever shall see you after taking bath in this lake called
Kramasara, shall see three of us on the mountain and will go to heaven.”

184. Brhada¤va (said): See, O king, these are those peak – Brahma, Visnu, and
Mahesvara. That which is Naubandhana peak is Sankara.

185. The one on its right side is celebrated as Hari and the left one as
Brahma. Even the evil-doers are freed by seeing these (peaks)

186-187. To the north of that which is proclaimed as Visnupada in Kramasara,
Brahma – the best of the gods – himself erected a hermitage. The venerable
sage Kasyapa constructed a hermitage in the western half.

188. Mighty Mahadeva himself erected a hermitage at the spot where Visnu stood
and obtained victory at that time.

189. In the other part of that place, the honourable plough-holder Ananta,
abiding by the instructions of Vasudeva, constructed a great hermitage.

190. On the western side of Mahadeva’s hermitage, the sun and the moon,
honoured by the gods, constructed their beautiful and holy hermitages.

191. At a distance of one Yojana lessened by one-fourth of a Yojana from
Mahadeva’s hermitage, Hari erected his hermitage celebrated as Narasimha.

192-193. Afterwards, other gods erected their hermitages, each one separately,
in the lake or on the waterless place. The sages whose wealth is penance
erected hermitages, and the rivers created several places of pilgrimage. So
did the Gandharvas, the Apsaras, the Yaksas and the mountain-kings along with
the Guhyakas.

194. Visnu and Rudra – the prominent ones in the world – made their abodes
there along with the lotus-born (Brahma). The whole world has made its abode
there. The country is meritorious and the holiest.

195. Then, the Sudarsana wheel – intoxicated with the blood of Jalodbhava –
wandered in that deserted land and was caught by Sankara.

196. With discus in his hand, he went where (stood) the god Janardana. Then
laughing heartily, Hari said to that god Sankara.

197. “O divine one, hand over the discus – destroyer of the hosts of the
Daityas to me.” Sankara (too) said in a joke to Hari who was laughing.

198. “Wandering at its will it has been found by me by chance. O Janardana, I
shall return your discuss on the receipt of a gift.”

199-200. “Be it so”, said the destroyer of Madhu and received the discus. O
king, this is the place you stand on now, where Hari – the best of the gods –
made a joke and got erected his own statue in that pose.

201-204. O lord of kings and controller of enemies, Janardana Hari, having got
erected such establishment of Sambhu and the goddess (Parvati) in that pose,
made his abode on the head of Jalodbhava. O lion among men, the sages, the
gods, the Nagas, the Gandharvas, the hosts of the heavenly maidens, all came
there at the head of Jalodbhava to see this (statue) in which both Kesava and
Siva – the destroyers of all sins – are represented and to see Janardana, the
god of gods who erected the divine image.

205-206. When the chief gods, sages and Nagas had taken their seats, Kasyapa,
standing in front with joined hands, said to the boon-giver Visnu, “O god, let
this country be inhabited by human beings and be holy as well as charming.”
When Kasyapa had spoken thus, the Nagas uttered these words:

207-208. “0 best among the sages, we would not live in the Company of men.”
Then Prajapati Kasyapa certainly became angry and said to them, “As you speak
audaciously; without paying regard to my words, so you shall have to dwell in
the company of the Pisacas. There is no doubt here.

209. Kasyapa having spoken thus, Nila said with joined hands, “O Brahman, they
are overpowered by anger and know nothing”.

210-212. Then Kasyapa, the most pious sage, spoke to him, “In the centre of
the Sea of Sand, there is an oasis six yojanas long. There dwell highly
terrible Pisacas belonging to the side of the Daityas. Nikumbha – the noble
and strong lord of the Pisacas – has been appointed by Kubera for keeping them
in check. Every time in the month of Caitra, he along with many Pisacas goes
to fight.

213-214. There are five crore Pisacas who are the followers of Nikumbha.
Nikumbha goes along with them and fights continuously (against the evil-minded
Pisacas) for six months. Of the evil-minded Pisacas, too, there live only five

215. O Nila, those who exceed ten crores on both the sides are destroyed every
time, in the period of six months.

216. Due to the favour of the god (Kubera), the mighty Nikumbha, along with
his five crore (followers), comes again every time on the bright fifteenth of

217-218. For six months he lives happily on the Himacala. From today I have
allotted to him a dwelling-place here for six months (of each year). You shall
have to live here for six months with him along with his armies and for six
months, after his departure, in the company of men.”

219-220. Addressed thus, the pious Nila said to his father, “We are ready to
live always in the company of men. We would not live with the Pisacas who are
cruel and who like cruelty.” When Nila the Naga-chief spoke thus, Visnu said :

221. “O Nila, the words of the sage will be effective for one Caturyuga (i.e.
four aeons). After that you will live~ in the company of men only.

222. Here the Pisacas will always become weak. Endowed with strength, they
will go, to the Sea of Sand for six months.

223-224. The men will worship the Naga in whose territory they shall dwell,
with flowers, incense, ointments, eatable offerings, incenses of various types
and excellent gifts of dramatic performances.

225. Those men in this country, who will follow the good customs laid down by
you, will be endowed with animals and grains.

226. Prajapati is called Ka, and Kasyapa is also Prajapati. Built by him this
country will be called Kasmira.

227. Because water called Ka was taken out by Balarama (the plough-wielder)
from this country, so this will be called Kasmira in this world.

228-229. O Naga, because Kasmira is the same as Uma so – She – nourished by
me, celebrated as Visoka and assuming the form of a woman shall dwell at

230. O Naga, at that sacred place there shall always be the dwelling-place of
Vasuki, the king of the Nagas. Worship him who lives there.

231. O chief of the Nagas, that lord of the kings of the Nagas is a part of my
own self. He who disobeys his order meets destruction at my hand.

232-233. O Naga, the dwelling of the Nagas is the city named Bhogavati. Having
become a Yogi that Naga-chief (Vasuki) dwells there as well as here. But with
his primary body, Vasuki, protecting the Nagas, shall live in Bhogavati. O
sinless one, you (also) dwell here constantly.”

234. Having said so, Visnu then went on his desired course. The gods, the
sages, the Nagas, and the Gandharvas went away as they had come.

235. Since then, the country is inhabited for six months (of the year), by
human beings belonging to various countries, and for six months by the eaters
of raw flesh.

236. O chief of the kings, having collected rice, grains etc. the human beings
go away after taking permission and came back always on (the full-moon day of)

237-238. O king, pleased to see Kasmira thus populated, Kasyapa worshipped the
god Sankara and induced the goddess Uma to purify this country by the gift of
water. She – the in destroying one – is renowned as the river Vitasta.

239. Having worshipped the god Kesava, he induced Laksmi to purify this
country. She is glorified as Visoka.

240. Induced by Kasyapa, Aditi, the mother of the gods also, having become the
river named Trikoti, flows in this country.

241. Induced by Kasyapa, Saci also, who is the wife of Indra, became in this
country, Harsapatha, by name the destroyer of sins.

242. Diti, following the advice of the sage, became (the river) Candravati.
The goddess Yamuna gave her own portion to the Vitasta.

243. Thus, by the order of Kasyapa, the mothers of the gods and the demons and
the holy wives of the gods assumed the forms of rivers.

244. O lord of the earth, then, due to the advice of Kasyapa, the sacred
waters, the oceans and the rivers went to Kasmira and her vicinity.

245. O lord of the kings, thus, on the arrival of Vaivasvata Antara, the
highly meritorious and beautiful wife of Hara was born as Kasmira.

246. Desiring continuous welfare, you should regard the king Kasmira as born
of a portion of Hara and never disobey him.

247. Gonanda (spoke): “How did Sati, Saci, Ganga, Aditi, Yamuna, Diti and the
goddess Karisini obtain the forms of rivers here?”

248. Brhadasva (said): “Once the glorified goddesses went to see Kasyapa. The
venerable sage Kasyapa induced them there (thus).

249. The beautiful country named Kasmira has been created by me. O possessed
of pure smiles, cherish that (country) by gift of water.

250. Aditi, Diti, Saci and the river Ganga said,”Let it be so” but neither Uma
nor Karisini (spoke).

251. Then he worshipped Sankara for (inducing) Sati, Hara thereafter said to
his wife: “Do as has been said by Kasyapa.”

252. The goddess then spoke to the sage. “That country being my own body is
already purified. What is to be done by me there?”

253. Kasyapa (said): “As the human beings are always associated with Pisacas
there, so their intellect does not always diverge from sin.

254. Dishonoured in all countries, possessed of evil practices and covered
with impurities…

255. O beautiful faced, their sin can be allayed by you alone, as the sin
committed in this land is regarded to be very weighty by me.

256. Brhadasva (said): After knowing this fact, the goddess, having a face
beautiful like the moon and possessed of great compassion, said to her lord:

257-59. “O father of the world, I shall assume the form of a river in the
Nether World. Make a stroke with your spear near the abode of Nila, where, O
lord, while breaking the mountain, was (placed) the point of the plough. By
that stroke of the spear I shall come out of the Nether World and shall follow
the way made with the plough up to the place where there is the great river
Sindhu.” The god Hara (accordingly) did this and so did the beautiful Sati.

260-61. Sankara himself named her as Vitasta. Because Hara had excavated with
the spear a ditch measuring one Vitasti, through which the good river – gone
to the Nether World – had come out, so she was given the name Vitasta by

262. Then, O king, the people in all the countries heard that the goddess
Sati, after assuming the form of a river, had appeared in Kasmira.

263-64. Then the people, possessed of great sins, came to have bath in that
(river). Being afraid of them, she went away quickly from that way excavated
by means of spear to the Nether world. Propitiating her, Kasyapa again brought
her out near Pancahasta.

265. Issuing forth from the abode of the Naga Pancahasta, she had covered a
distance of one gavyuti only when an ungrateful person, verily, saw her.

266-67. Seen by an ungrateful one, she again disappeared. Persuaded once more
by the sayings of Kasyapa, the best of the rivers allowed her person to be
seen at a distance of a Krosa from that Cakra. Then seen by one who had
illicit relation with a friend’s wife, she again disappeared.

268. By the word of Kasyapa and praised by thousands of Brahmanas, the
beautiful river was brought out at the hermitage of Narasimha.

269. Again at a distance of one Krosa, the great river, seen by a
Brahmana-killer, vanished at once and then Kasyapa said to her:

270. “Salutation to you, O daughter of the king of mountains; salutation to
you, loved by the best sages; salutation to you, the giver of boons, worthy of
being solicited and possessed of sacred character by association with Hara.

271-72. O goddess – devoid of impurities and grief, having holy and cool
water, with the banks approached by the frolicsome wives of the gods, embraced
by the twice-born and the gods – afraid of whom you are running away, those
very men – devoid of all sins and shining with great lustre – surround you.

273. O goddess, just as a thing burnt in the fire gets purity, so is the
purity (obtained) from your sight. All sins become purified in the same way. O
great goddess, be favourable!

274. O great river, you have been requested for the purification of the
sinners, so purify the sins. O swiftly going one, do not go out of sight.”

275. Gratified thus with devotion of the high-minded Kasyapa, the goddess
spoke to Kasyapa who was speaking in that way.

276-78. “I do not dare purify those who are associated with too much of sin.
For this implore Laksmi, the beloved of the bowholder (i.e. Visnu). She is
capable of purifying even the three worlds. Aditi, Diti, the great river Ganga
and all other rivers do not bear any comparison to her. Request today only
Laksmi – the beloved of Kesava.”

280-81. Govinda said to Laksmi. “O goddess go, do not be late.” Addressed thus
by Kesava, Laksmi – filled with grief – spoke this sentence: “O Lord, Sati has
already gone there. She will, verily, take away the credit of me who shall go

282. Knowing her full of grief, Kasyapa spoke again. You are the supreme power
appearing in various forms.

283-84. O goddess, daughter of the sea, devoid of dust, holy, abode of
auspiciousness, it is you who are Kasmira, it is you who are glorified as Uma,
it is you who, O goddess, are living in the forms of all goddesses.

285. The water of the Vitasta, mixed with your water, may be such as is the
honey mixed with nectar. Bathed in your water, even the sinners become free at
once and are purified.”

286-87. Lauded by Kasyapa, she became devoid of grief. The giver of boons,
(she) thought, “I must act according to the words of my lord and of the sage.
Certainly, there is no use of my thinking. Having assumed the form of a river
she went quickly. Kasmira spoke:

288-89. “Go soon before Sati reaches here to wait for you. O beautiful one,
purify (this) country with water before she purifies it first. You will get a
good name.” Having heard her words she became griefless.

290. That river, therefore is always called Visoka (Griefless) by the people.
Kasmira, whose speed is like that of the mind, also told (everything) to the
goddess Sati.

291. Having listened to the activities of Laksmi, Sati, who had heard all the
details, became pleased and stood waiting in the way near the hermitage of

292. Visoka, too, afterwards, came through the hole of Akhu as it was vacant
and saw Vitasta who was standing in front.

293. O chief of the kings, Visoka – freed of all jealousy on seeing Vitasta –
joined her. Then Vitasta, who had reached there first, appropriated her name.

294-96. O lord, then angry Visoka cursed Kasmira, “O wicked one, as I have
been absorbed by you today by means of falsehood and you have informed Sati
about my activities, so your people will be mostly liars, possessed of
impurities, hired servants and dishonoured in the worlds.

297. As regards taking away of my prestige by Sati, there is no humiliation to
me as the goddess Sati, O Kasmira, undoubtedly is the same as I.

298. Then the best among the rivers, namely Sati accompanied by Laksmi, went
slowly through the way made with the plough, purifying the people.

299. Aditi, the mother of the gods celebrated as Trikoti, joined the goddess

300. O king, then (joined) Saci, the wife of Indra, named as river Harsapatha,
and Diti, the mother of Daityas, Candravati by name.

301. Receiving good rivers in this way, the goddess became united with the
Ganga and the Sindhu.

302. The water of Vitasta mixed with that of Sindhu is like milk mixed with
nectar, beauty associated with elegance and knowledge associated with good

303-4. 0 king, she became there such as is bravery associated with humility,
piety associated with wealth, clay of high quality refined through
purification, Kama associated with mind, gem associated with gold, life
associated with health, and profit associated with honour.

305-6. Bound by affection, Tapana’s daughter – the goddess Ganga – due to the
great respect and devotion for the sage, augmented with her own part the
Vitasta, the best of the rivers, the destroyer of all sins. The Sindhu should
be regarded as the Ganga and the Vitasta as the Yamuna.

307. The place, where there is the confluence of these two, should be regarded
as equal to Prayaga. Appropriating the water of the Ganga, the Yamuna said to
the Ganga:

308. “O possessed of beautiful colour, at Prayaga my name is appropriated by
you and in Kasmira your name has been appropriated by me.”

309. Then the Ganga said to her, “O beautiful one, I must again appropriate
your name when I am designated as Sindhu.”

310. Having come to know this fact, Sati – the river going in the company of
the Sindhu – divided itself and did not go beyond the Himalaya, through the
way made with the plough.

311-13. The sage Kasyapa again spoke to her possessed of great fortune: “O
beautiful one, you must necessarily go by the way made with the plough,
otherwise the whole country will be turned into a lake.” Persuaded again and
again by Kasyapa, that excellent river went in anger through the way made with
plough. So, though clear, she is seen as a dirty one at that place.

314. Kasyapa said: “Assuming the form of a river called Vitasta, O goddess,
the daughter of the mountain, you are not a river (but) an ascetic lady, wife
of Sarva, even higher than Sarva.

315. May there be happiness for you. You are the daughter of the mountain and
on account of (being born) from his body are (called) the mountain-river. O
wife of Rudra, you are borne by Sambhu and being requested, you flow (in the
form of a river).

316. Those great sinners also who having offered their bodies to you are gone
to heaven are pleased to see their bodies carried away by (your) waves.

317. They are surprised to see their bodies (and say), ‘We are in heaven, and
being in the water, are still sporting in (the river which is a form of) Uma.

318. O goddess, the fire of hell for the human beings is pacified with your
cool outpourings called waves, born of water-drops and sent forth by the wind.

319. O goddess, born of the mountain, you pacify the fire of three times seven
hells for the human beings by means of your waves shining with earthen lamps.

320. Those persons who will take bath in your holy water, shall go to
Brahmaloka, even if they have committed Great Sins.

321. Those who bathe even once in your waters, do not see, even in dream, the
dreadful tortures of Yama induced by the contraction of his eye-brows.

322. The sages know that for a Brahmana always performing (his) duties, a bath
in you is the giver of salvation and a bath in the Ganga is the giver of

323. Purifier of even the three worlds, you are possessed of great influence.
O goddess, you are Uma, the mother of all gods and not a river.

324. O goddess,(you are) the solidity of gods, the goddess Bharati of gods. O
river, you are always the satisfaction of all beings on the earth.

325. O goddess, do favour upon me. Engaged in the welfare of this country, go
further from this abode with an unannoyed mind.

326. You are half of the body of Hara. You are the wife of the God and not a
stream who while running to meet Sindhu have been requested by me.

327. Sankara alone is your lord and the ocean is not different from Him. Go
quickly to your lord Siva by meeting the ocean.

328. Having heard thus, the goddess again remembered her own saying and
becoming eager, made up her mind to go to him.

329. Then, the stream bearing resemblance to a hill of water, went forth with
great force, doing as it were the parting of Himalaya’s hair.

330 O king, then she joined the goddess Krishna and hundreds and thousands of
other nice rivers.

331. Passing through the middle of Svairajakas and a part of Matras, and
crossing Bhogaprastha, it joined the Ganga.

332. Verily this sin-destroying Vitasta – the best of the rivers – appeared on
the earth in the company of Laksmi, due to the instruction of Kasyapa.

333. O king, (there appeared) also Aditi, Diti, Saci, the excellent river
Ganga and the daughter of the Sun, i.e. Yamuna.

334-35. Living thus in Kasmira the four aeons passed After the completion of
those four aeons, at the end of the month of Asvayuj, the human beings went
out after having made collections of rice etc.

336 An old good Brahmana named Candradeva – descendant of Kasyapa – did not go
out due to despondency and due to being ordained by future events.

337-38. He was not killed due to the fear of Nikumbha and also for the sake of
sport. The Pisacas, then, played with that Brahmana as the little boys (play)
with a bird tied to a string. Agitated by the Pisacas, he obtained complete
indifference (to worldly objects).

339. Oppressed by the Pisacas and with cold and snow, that old good Brahmana
roamed with a perplexed mind and while roaming, he reached (that place) where
(lived) that king of the Nagas.

340. At the place where Ananta had formerly fixed his plough, there (existed)
since olden times, the highly exalted abode of Nila.

341-42. At that very time, the mighty Nila, the lord of the Nagas, seated on a
nice couch under Dhanada, the best of the mountains, was being served by the
high-souled Pisaca Nikumbha and highly powerful and dreadful Nagas.

343. The Nagas and the Naga-maidens who had made their abodes in Kasmira,
waited in large numbers upon that Naga-king.

344. Some of the Nagas were praising the king, the others were fanning (him),
while others, again, were waiting upon him, the pious one seated on an
excellent couch.

345-50. Seeing in their midst, Nila, resembling a mass of black antimony,
shining forth with his ear-rings and the diadem of sun-like colour, adorned
with one garment shining like the lightening, and the China-silk resembling
the rays of the moon, shining due to a variegated canopy decorated all around
with rows of little bells and due to seven hundred terrible snake-hoods
radiant with jewels and surrounded by garlands of effulgence spread forth by
gems of the lamps studded with gems, Candradeva thought “This must be Nila.”
Due to the favour of that mighty lord of the serpents, that twice-born
approached the Naga, did obeisance, touches, the earth with his knees and then
pronounced the hymn of praise.

351-52. Candradeva said: “Salutation to you, O Nila, sovereign-king of the
Nagas, possessed of lustre like that of the blue lotus, resembling a mass of
blue clouds, having abode in dark blue waters, you shine, O Naga, with seven
hundred hoods, You blaze forth like the seven-horsed sun, with rays.

353. O Nila of dark blue complexion, O lord of the gods, O king of the Nagas,
you – chief of the hooded ones, sitting in the sky and called immortal – are
seen, as it were, through meditation, by your own gods who are wise and who
have subdued sins.

354. O Nila, enthroned like the lord of sacrifice you are propitiated with
various rites, for the attainment of salvation, by the Brahmanas who know the
meaning of the Vedas and perform proper sacrifices in worldly matters.

355. O lord of the Nagas, the chiefs of the gods recognize you as fire and as
the sun in the sky. Shining like fire, O Nila, you accomplish the deeds of
your devotees.

356. By me you have been seen as appearing for some reason, though you dwell
in all the beings. Then remember. ed, you release me from the great calamity.
Salutation to you, O lord of men, protect (this) Brahmana.

357. O Nila, shining with the multitude of water-torrents, you shimmer like
Visnu, the lord of the immortals. Being a creator of the creator, you enjoy
the company of the lord of Yama and always bow down before Vasudeva.

358. Clad in blue raiment and possessed of blue eyes, O Nila, O lord of the
Nagas, even a man of unrestrained senses who contemplates you – the lord of
the gods and all pervading like the Ether – is saved by your grace.

359. O Nila, the Vedas have sung about you – the eternal one – as the essence
of the Vedas, the object of worship in the fire, the fulfiller of the desires
of those who seek salvation and those who are ambitious (of material gain).

360. Illumined by you the Brahma is indivisible, pure and the highest. Due to
its minuteness, it is called Ether and is even with all the limbs, uncreated.

361. O Akincanya, you, too, have not been able to explain the true essence of
that highly minute (and still) great one. For being the support of all the
elements, you are the great essence of your own self and of that imperishable

362. O Lord of the Naga-kings, Kadru adorned with a thousand sons shines
exceedingly by you only as Aditi by Visnu only.

363. O Lord, you alone shine so much with penance and send forth water, snow
and showers.

364. O highly pious one, Prajapati Kasyapa – the father of all beings – is
adorned exceedingly by having you as a son.

365-66. O Lord, in you there is piety, truth and forbearance. In the wars
amongst the gods and the demons, you have slain hundreds and thousands of the
demons who were (like) thorns for the gods and the Brahmanas. O mighty one,
you are the giver of the boons, worthy of attainment and slayer of the armies
of the enemies of the gods.

367. Having compassion on your devotees, you are highly devoted to Janardana,
the god of the gods. You are exceedingly dear to Him as is that Naga Vasuki.

368. O Naga, the Dhanada (“Wealth-giver”, the name of a mountain) is always
your friend as of Siva. Well-known as the lord of wealth, you give wealth to
(your) devotees.

369. You are the refuge of the Nagas as Indra is of the gods. O pious one,
know that I am full of devotion for you.

370. Nila said: “Hail to you, O best among the twice. born. O lord of the
Brahmanas, Luckily you have approached me and are to be honoured as you have
been regarded as a guest by me.

371. Happiness to you! Ask for a boon which is desired by you and is dear to
your heart. Visit my home and stay there as it may please you.”

372. Candradeva (spoke): “O best among the Naga-chiefs, you must give me a
boon. I ask for a boon and you are worthy of granting that to me.

373. O possessed of terrible prowess, let the human beings live constantly in
Kasmira. The people are always oppressed in going away and coming again.

374. Leaving their homes and cities of various sorts, the human beings… May
they live (here) with your favour. This is the boon I solicit for.

375. Nila (said): ” O best among the twice-born, it will be so. Acting upon my
instructions received by me from Kesava, the human beings may live here

376-77. Saying thus, Nila took the Brahmana to his home, worshipped him, fed
him properly and told him the practices (to be followed) for living in
Kasmira. The Brahmana also lived happily in the home of Nila for six months.

378. When the (full moon night) of Caitra had passed, men poured in from all
sides and there came also the king named Virodaya surrounded by many horses
and elephants.

379-80. When the human beings had entered, the young Brahmana appointed by
Nila approached king Virodaya with hoards of wealth and related to him the
whole account. The king also related the whole incident to all the people.

381. Since then, human beings acting upon the instructions of Nila lived
happily in Kasmira after constructing houses there.

382. Having constructed various sorts of houses, temples, sacred places,
villages and cities, the people lived in that dwelling-place.

383. Since then, very little snow falls in this country and the people always
obey the words of Nila.

384. Vaisampayana (said): Told thus by Brhadasva, king Gonanda, possessed of
curiosity, asked that sage again:

385. O descendant of Bhrgu, possessed of great lustre, tell me as to which
were the holy practices which Nila, formerly, pronounced to Candradeva?

386. Brhadasva (said): O king, listen attentively to that which the Naga –
seated on a couch – told the Brahmana seated on a silver stool.

387. Nila (said): “Having bowed before Hrsikesa Hari the preceptor of
Parasara, I shall relate to you the practice (to be followed) for living in

388. O son of Kasyapa, on Asvayuji there comes Nikumbha, after killing in
battle, many Pisacas gone to the sea of sand.

389. The full moon night should be celebrated for his worship. Know that from

390. The houses should be white-washed and worshipped. Men, especially the
children, must take bath and anoint themselves.

391. Men should not eat anything on that day. Food should be given only to the
children and the sick.

392-93. The houses should be worshipped with heaps of leaves along with
fruits. Having kindled fire after the rise of the moon, one should worship
Rudra, moon, Uma, Skanda, two Nasatyas and Nandi, each one separately with
water of honour (argha), garlands and eatable offerings.

394. Then Nikumbha should be worshipped with Krsara (rice mixed with pulse).
Men possessed of horses should worship Revanta, the son of Aditya.

395. Persons possessing cows should worship Surabhi and those who have got
goats should worship fire.

396. Shepherds should worship the god (Varuna), the lord of waters, and those
who own elephants should worship the lord of the Ganas.

397. Having performed sacrifice in the fire and having worshipped the best
Brahmanas, one should worship one’s own self and eat vegetarian food in the
company of friends, servants, wife, children etc.

398. That night should be passed by men in the vicinity of fire, amidst all
sorts of vocal and instrumental music mingled with the sound of conches.

399-400. 0 king, (that night) should be passed with good dramatic
performances. Then, early in the morning, the persons – well anointed and well
adorned – should perform fire-worship and the ceremony of touching auspicious

401. One should feast in the company of friends and should play to one’s
contents. One should sleep that night, and afterwards, on the next one.

402-6. People – with all parts of their bodies smeared with mud; besmearing
their friends here and there with mud; speaking, for the sake of love, various
beautiful utterances concerning persons having sexual intercourse and the
women fit for cohabitation, instigating sex-instinct; saying indecent words
and crying aloud – should play. On that day, in the morning, the Pisacas of
dreadful sight – the followers of Nikumbha – enter all the human beings. In
the evening, they leave the body of one who does so and is bathed and enter
that of another, cursing him, who does not do so. Then the bathed persons
should worship Kesava.

407-8. With their bodies anointed and well-adorned, they should worship the
Brahmanas and feast themselves in the company of friends, servants, wives and
children. Since then, the human beings, especially the Brahmanas, should keep
the fire kindled in their houses, at night, for a period of six months.

409-10. A lamp should be placed outside the home, at night, for one month.
Till the full-moon night of Karttika, this Kaumudi – the giver of bliss –
should be celebrated. Then after the passing away of that fortnight, there
should be the celebration of “Sleep with happiness” (Sukha Suptika).

411. 0 Brahmana, listen to me who am saying as to how is that to-be celebrated
on the fifteenth. None except the sick and the children should take meals on
that day.

412-13. After sun-set, one should worship Laksmi and then lamp-trees should be
placed in the temples of the gods, crossings of the roads, cremation grounds,
rivers, hills, houses, bases of trees, cow-pens, court-yards and shops.

414-15. O twice-born, all the shops should be decorated with clothes. After
that, in the place surrounded by rows of earthen lamps, O lord of the
twice-born, a person, well adorned and dressed in new, should eat in the
company of friends, relatives, the Brahmanas and servants.

416. Next day, the persons – well anointed and well decorated should gamble
and listen to vocal and instrumental music.

417. They should also feast in the company of the persons mentioned above. For
him who wins in that gambling, the year is auspicious.

418-19. During that night, the place where the beds are placed, should be
well-decorated with perfumes, clothes, incense and jewels. It should also be
surrounded by lines of lamps and perfumed with incense. That night should be
spent by them in the company of wives.

420. 0 Candradeva, the friends, the relatives made by marriage and the
maternal relatives should be honoured with new clothes and so also the
Brahmanas and the servants in the proper manner.

421. On the eleventh night of the bright half of the month, the man observing
fast should wake up God Hari with songs and dances.

422-23. In the month of Asadha, Kesava’s statue, sleeping on the couch in the
form of Sesa, should be made of stone, clay, gold, wood, copper, brass, silver
or He may be painted in a picture. His feet should be shown in the lap of

424. 0 excellent sage, know from me the way in which that (deity) is to be
awakened at the end of the bright half of Karttika.

425-27. During the night of the eleventh, vigil should be observed with songs,
dances, instrumental music, Brahmaghosa, the sounds of Vina and Pataha,
recitation of the Puranas, hearing of the Puranic stories, singing of
devotional hymns, presentation of dramatic performances, charities, earth
decorations, offerings of flowers and incenses, various sorts of eatable
offerings, trees of lamps, and various sorts of fire-worships.

428-431. Having worshipped the image at night, with eatables like cakes,
vegetables, rice boiled in milk, fruits, preparations of sugar-cane, honey,
grapes, pomegranate, holy basil, and salt; with brush, red thread, red and
white sandalwood, Alaktaka paint, seeds and fragrant saffron, the wise should
wash the auspicious image after taking bath in the holy water of a river.

432-34. That awakened image made of the above-mentioned materials – if the
figure be painted in a picture – … should be carried on an altar and the
wise should bathe that (image) placed on the seat, in the proper manner, in
accordance with the rules of the Pancaratra and according to one’s means
firstly with clarified butter, oil, honey; then with curd and milk, and then
with the five preparations of cow’s milk.

435-39. Thereafter, should be applied to the image, the unguents, namely the
ground seeds of Phaseolus Radiatus (masacurnam), the ground seeds of Ipomoea
Turpethum (masuracurnam), (ground) fruits of Emblic Myrobalan (amalakani),
Symplocos Recemosa (rodhram), Curcuma xanthorrhiza (kaleyakam), powder of
Tabernaemontana coronaria (tagaram), the pericarp of a lotus (karnakam), the
white mustard (siddharthakam), Pamcum Italicum (priyangu), fruits of citron
(bijapurakam), all the medicinal herbs, all scents, all seeds, gold,
auspicious things as far as these may be available, jewels, Kusa grass, water,
clay dug out by means of elephant’s tooth and bull’s horn from the bank of a
river, cow-pen, ant hill, confluence (of rivers), water-tank, the place of
Indra (king), the lake, and the peak of the mountain. Having given bath to the
king of the gods with all these, one should give the auspicious yellow pigment
called gorocana.

440. Then should be given, as far as the means may allow, pitchers made of
gold, well decorated and full of the leaves of Jati flowers and fruits.

441-42. Having bathed Govinda amidst announcements of good day, recitation of
Veda, tunes of Vina and Venu, the sounds of Sutas, Magadhas and Vandis, that
well anointed, well decorated and well-dressed (Govinda) should be worshipped
with Jati flowers along with buds.

443. Incense should be given along with pollen of flowers and beautiful
earthen lamp. Then the god should be worshipped with rice boiled in milk.

444-45. Then the Bhagavatas should be honoured with gifts of grains and
jewels. Thereafter should be performed fire-sacrifice and after that should be
worshipped the Brahmanas, according to one’s means, with clothes, ornaments,
jewels, cows, horses, elephants and cash-money. One should take meals

446. On the thirteenth should be honoured, as the means may allow, the persons
whose means of livelihood is stage i.e. wrestlers, panegyrists etc.

447. On the fourteenth, either nothing should be taken or milk only may be
taken and on the fifteenth should be worshipped Janardana, the god of the

448-51. On Paurnamasi, nothing should be eaten during the day time. After the
rising of the moon, Krttikas, Karttikeya, Khadga and Varuna along with
Hutasana should be worshipped with garlands, scents, incenses, eatables of
various kinds like the rice boiled in milk, vegetables, preparations of
sugarcane, half ripe barley, cakes of sugar covered with seeds, beautiful
trees of lamps and worship of the twice-born.

452-53. After performing worship thus, one should put the earthen lamp, which
was placed at the outer side of the house for a month, in a basket and taking
in the vicinity of water, make that flow along with some eatables. The bottom
of the lamp should be painted with sandalwood.

454. Having made a fish of sand, one should fill it with milk, provide it with
eyes of jewels, and then give it to a Brahmana.

455-56. Then a nice white bull – clothed, endowed with all scents and bearing
all sorts of grains should be given to a twice-born according to one’s means.
He waits (for the donor) in the Kantara i.e. the path of the god of Death. By
means of that (bull) the wise men, verily, cross the way of the god of Death.

457. The givers of the bull enjoy themselves in the heaven, for as many years
as there are hair on the body of the bull.

458. After worshipping Visnu with red garlands, one should take milk etc. and
then go to sleep.

459-60. Thus, the Awakening of the God should be observed for five days. The
wise men should sleep on bare earth for five days and take bath daily in the
cool water of the river.

461. The god Hari, the Brahmanas and the Fire should be worshipped. O
descendant of Kasyapa, the eating of meat should be avoided even with great

462. The meat-eaters, namely, the Danavas, the Yaksas, the Daityas, and the
Pisacas along with the Raksasas avoid meat for these five days.

463. Having worshipped thus the lord of the gods, possessed of (the
fulfillment of) all desires, one, having reached the end of life, is honoured
in the world of Visnu.

464. It is in accordance with one’s means that all this, may be even little,
should be performed. One gets (by this) the whole merit. Dishonesty in
money-matters should be avoided.

465-66. Formerly, Kasmira was constructed by the high- souled Kasyapa, on the
first day after the passing away of the (full-moon day of) Karttika, so a
festival should be celebrated there on that day by all human beings –
well-fed, well anointed, possessed of happy minds and surrounded by good

467. Vocal and instrumental music should be listened to and auspicious things
should be resorted to. New clothes should be worn, and those who are given to
drinking should drink.

468. The sun along with his ganas is pleased with him.

469. The same procedure should be followed on the seventh of Magha and also on
the seventh of Asadha, by those who desire victory and renown.

470. 0 best among the twice-borns, this triad of the seventh days is
compulsory. By following this procedure on all the seventh days, one is
honoured in the world of the sun.

471-74. On the full-moon night of Margasirsa, one should take meals at night (
only), and worship the moon with white garland etc., grains, other types of
food, gifts of lamps, fruits, gifts of salt, fire-worships, worship of the
Brahmanas and worship of women (whose husbands and sons are alive). A pair of
red clothes should be given to a Brahmana woman whose husband and sons are
alive and also to a sister, father’s sister and the wife of a friend. O best
among the twice-born, this full-moon night should certainly be celebrated by
the wise.

475-76 Others may be celebrated as the means allow or even may not be
celebrated. By this, women get beautiful form and great prosperity. So the
full-moon nights should be specially observed by women.

477. On the day on which falls the first snow, should be worshipped, O
Brahmana, the Himalaya and the two seasons Hemanta and Sisira.

478 My worship should be performed and also that of the local Naga. Fruits and
leaves growing on the Meru should be offered to the mountain.

479. Baka flowers (Grandiflora) should be offered and also the auspicious
incense made of bdellium. O best among the twice-born, oblations of half ripe
barley should also be made.

480. Food-preparations of half-ripe barley along with purified butter should
be given to the Brahmanas, and a festival full of songs and dances should be

481. On snow-fall, new wine should be drunk by those who are given to
drinking. Special meals should be taken according to one’s desire.

482. The goddess Syama should be worshipped with flowers, incense, paints,
grains, food-preparations, fruits and roots by those who are well-anointed and

483-84. Clad in heavy cloaks and clothes, seated on the snow along with
friends, servants, children and relatives, they should eat special food,
listen to vocal and instrumental music, see dances of harlots and honour the

485-86. Sraddha should be performed with vegetables on the 8th of the
dark-half of Pausa, with meat on the 8th of the dark-half of Magha, and with
cakes of flour on the 8th of the bright-half of Phalguna, in the proper way,
by a person intently devoted. On the 9th days of those very (months and
fortnights) should be performed Sraddhas for women.

487-88. After performing Sraddha one should pass the night, with effort, in
celibacy. When the full-moon night of the Pausa be associated with Pusya, then
a person, besmeared with the powder of white mustards, should anoint his body
with purified butter.

489-92. Then shining greatly after taking bath from vessels full of all
medicines, he should worship Narayana, Sakra, Soma, Pusya, Brhaspati, each one
separately with water of honour, garlands, eatable offerings etc. Then, O
twice-born, after performing sacrifice with Mantras belonging to the
above-mentioned gods, he should worship the Brahmanas with wealth, and after
touching auspicious things, he should eat preparation of purified butter and
milk. A new silken cloth should be given to the officiating priest knowing
(future) time.

493. Doing thus, a man obtains prosperity from the point of view of wealth and
grains. So the bath of such type which destroys sins, should be performed.

494. When there is Uttarayana, one should bathe Madhusudana according to one’s
means. The devotee of Hara (should bathe) the god Hara.

495-96. After anointing the stone-images with purified butter, one should make
similar images of purified butter. These images should be worshipped with
purified butter, conscientiously, by the wise for a period of three months.

497. Fuel should be given to the Brahmanas and grass for the cows to the
twice-borns, according to one’s means.

498. One who does so, conquers well his enemies and obtains beauty born of the
lustre of the fire of the body and also good resort (after death).

499-500. On the 12th of the dark half after the passing away of the full-moon
night of Pausa, one, observing fast and bathed, should offer sesame and water.
Having prepared the offering of sesame and having performed sacrifice with
sesame, one should give sesame to the Brahmanas for the removal of all sins.

501-503. After that on the 14th of the dark-half of the month, one should take
bath, before sun-rise, in the cool water of the Vitasta or the Visoka or the
Candravati or the Harsapatha or the Trikoti or the Sindhu or the holy
Kanakavahini or any other holy river or the water-reservoirs and the lakes.

504. Seven kand-fulls of water should be offered in the name of Yama, one for
each name. Listen from me those names:

505. To Yama, to Dharmaraja, to Mrtyu, to Antaka, to Vaivasvata, to Kala and
to Destroyer of all life.

506. Having taken bath, one should worship Dharmaraja with flowers, incenses,
scents and a great quantity of rice mixed with pulses.

507. Fire-worship should be performed with sesame mixed with clarified butter,
and the Brahmanas should be fed with rice mixed with pulses, and should be
given the sacrificial fee.

508-9. O best among the twice-borns, by doing so a man is purified and freed
from all sins if he be not associated with Great Sins. How can there be
salvation for the performer of Great Sins, without performing atonements?

510. Bath etc. everything is considered to be imperishable therein, if the
fifteenth (of the dark half of Pausa) be joined with Sravana.

511-14. On the 4th of the bright half of the month of Magha, one desiring
prosperity should worship Uma with lamps, grains, garlands, incenses, ginger,
coarse sugar, Kusumbha flower, salt, saffron, collyrium, comb and Kunda
flowers brought even with great effort. O descendant of Kasyapa, the women,
who are devoted to their husbands and whose husbands are alive, and also the
sisters etc. should be worshipped there. Same should be done in the month of
Asvayuj and same in the month of Jyestha.

515. A man possessed of devotion should celebrate all 4th days, but this triad
of fourth days (should be celebrated) certainly. O Brahmana, the women should
especially celebrate these (days).

516. On the full-moon night of Magha, a man should perform Sraddha with sesame
and give enough food consisting of pious offerings to the crows.

517. After the passing away of the eighth of the month of Magha, there should
be celebrated for three days, a small festival. Know the procedure of that
from me.

518-19. In the twenty fourth Treta, Hari shall assume the form of a human
being, Raghunandana Rama, son of Dasaratha. Thence forward should be
celebrated a small festival and after that (small one) a great one.

520. Caru (grain boiled in milk or butter or water) of all grains should be
prepared with effort. The Brahmanas, the relatives made by marriage and the
maternal relatives should be worshipped with that (caru) and cakes of flour.

521-22. The goddess Sita – wife of Rama – should be worshipped with effort. On
the 9th should be fed the Brahmanas with eatables made of flour mixed with
honey, as the means may allow. Karisini should be worshipped.

523. On the tenth should be prepared rice of various types and with that
should be worshipped the Brahmanas, the friends and the followers.

524. One should honour one’s own self and listen to vocal and instrumental
music. Ceremonies of touching auspicious things should be performed, verily,
for three days.

525-26. O twice-born, if that twelfth (day) be associated with Sravana, then
the wise observing last should worship the god Hari and do all performances
with sesame as said before. O giver of honour, everything done in that becomes

527. On the dark fourteenth after the passing-away of that (twelfth), one
observing fast, should take bath and worship Mahesvara.

528. The wise should bathe the Linga with its woolen covering put aside, with
the method followed in the Awakening of God and with materials mentioned

529-30. Having worshipped (the Linga) with scents, garlands, red clothes,
ointments, eatable offerings of various types and pleasing of Fire and the
Brahmanas, devotion with vigil at night should be observed. Siva Dharmas and
(the stories about) the incarnations of Siva should be listened to.

531-33. In the eatable offerings for Sankara, animals should be made of flour.
He should be worshipped on the fifteenth also. O best among the twice-borns,
there too, meals consisting of half ripe barley and cakes of sugar covered
with sesames should be taken. The God must be necessarily worshipped on the
14th of the dark half of that month. In other months, He may or may not be
worshipped according to one’s desire. Having worshipped Him, one is
established in Rudraloka and obtains mastery over the Ganas.

534. O best among the twice-borns, listen to me who am saying as to how the
festival in the bright half of the month of Phalguna should be celebrated.

535. Observing fast, the persons – bathed and adorned – should place earthen
lamps on the snow at the time of night-fall.

536-37. After that, the gods and the Fathers should be fed. Next day, the
houses and especially the temples should be worshipped with beautiful garlands
of grains. Then should be worshipped Sita with scents, garlands etc.

538. After that, special meals should be taken, and then should be celebrated
the festival, full of songs and dances.

539. Except the cooked food which is to be given daily, nothing should be
given on that day. Anything received should be got hold of with great effort.

540. Next day, one should decorate oneself, touch auspicious things and
celebrate a special festival.

541. On that day, gifts should be given to and accepted from the twice-borns,
dependents, craftsmen and relatives.

542. Those who are addicted to drinking should drink wine and the Brahmanas
should take auspicious drinks. The bed chamber should be perfumed with the
perfume of incense.

543-44. None should be made ill-disposed on that day. Happy women – well-fed,
well-dressed, well-scented, well-anointed and decorated with ornaments –
should play in the company of men.

545. On the rising of the moon in the (full-moon) night of Phalguna, the moon
and after that Aryama also should be worshipped.

546-47. Vigil should be observed during the night by singing, dancing and
playing on instruments. On next day should be viewed the performances of the
dancers, the actors and the singers. This should continue up to the fifth of
the dark-half (of Phalguna).

548. Meals consisting mainly of a medicinal plant Parpata should be taken for
five days and decoration of the womenfolk and the self should be made.

549. O twice-born, on that very fifth day Kasmira becomes menstruating so her
worship must be performed thereafter.

550. A beautiful stone-image of Kasmira should be made and that should be
worshipped by offering unguents, clothes and eatables.

551. Decorative things like flowers, incense etc. should not be given to her
for three days. O best among the twice- born, offering of milk is also

552. The worship should be performed by women, by no means by men. The goddess
should be bathed by women on the 8th of the dark half of that month.
Afterwards, she should be bathed by the twice-borns, from pitchers full of all

553-554. Having bathed that goddess with scents, seeds, jewels and fruits
successively, they should worship her with scents, garlands, clothes,
ornaments, food and special preparations of cow’s milk.

556-56. Sacrifice for the gods should be performed with eatables of triangular
shape made of ground Phaseolus Mungo (mudga), husked rice and unhusked rice
and these should be given to the relatives also. Fire-worship should be
performed and so also the worship of the Brahmanas.

557. The women – well-bathed, well-scented, well-fed and well-dressed – should
be pleased on that day.

558. O twice-born, food should be sent to the friend’s house, and music of
Tantri-instrument should be listened to at ease by the well-fed (persons).

559. O best among the twice-borns, Kasmira – bathed after menstruation –
becomes pregnant since then, so cultivation should be started after that.

560-63. Having made the field ready on a day told by the astrologer, one,
surrounded by the friends, should worship the goddess Earth, a pair of bulls,
cow, horse, Baladeva, Mahadeva, Vamadeva, the Sun, the Moon, the lord of
medicines, Parjanya, Indra, Pracetas, Rama, Laksmana, Sita, Sesa – the bearer
of the earth, Brahma, Kasyapa, Fire, Wind, Sky, each one separately with
garlands, scents, incenses and eatable offerings.

564. Fire-worship should be performed, and after that the worship of the
Brahmanas (should be performed). Then sacrificial fee should be given to the
Brahmanas, according to one’s means.

565. Thereafter, a man – well-anointed, well-decorated, well-fed and possessed
of auspicious features should sow the seed.

566. The seed, drenched in water rendered holy with gold, should be sown with
gold amidst high sounds of musical instruments, and Brahmanas on a holy day.

567-68. At first one should plough the auspicious earth which is already
inclined (to receive the seed). O twice-born, well-decorated one should eat,
in the centre of the field, in the company of friends, wife and dependents. A
festival full of singing and dancing should be celebrated with heart-
enchanting sounds of musical instruments.

569. O twice-born, it is stated that on the eleventh day following (the
full-moon night) of Phalguna, the women should worship the god Candra.

570. Men should never worship him. Due to a boon given by Brahma, he is to
receive worship from the women.

571. (He should be worshipped) with the flesh of water-born animals, various
types of eatables, garlands, incenses and fragrant saffron.

572-73. After such worship, the wise should worship him on the twelfth. O
twice-born, after being sent out of one’s house through the door, he should be
brought in through the ventilator. Then he should be placed at one’s will.

574. O best among the twice-born, on the fourteenth of that (fortnight).
Sankara should be worshipped and a great festival should be celebrated at

575. O Brahmana, highly strong and pious-minded Nikumbha, along with his
followers, worships Sankara on that fourteenth.

576. Vigil should be observed during that night and the worship of Sambhu –
the god of gods – should be performed with effort.

577. Nikumbha – the lord of the Pisacas – should also be worshipped and the
well-prepared oblations should be offered to the Pisacas.

578-80. (Offerings) mixed with cakes of meat and other non-vegetarian food,
fish, meat etc. should be placed under the trees, in cow-pens, in various
types of houses, on road- crossings, in streets, court-yards, rivers,
prominent vacant houses, on tops of mountains, in palaces, burning-grounds and
on roads. O descendant of Kasyapa, children should be protected during that
night, in every house.

581. Sportive men should pass that night in the company of courtesans, with
the observance of the vow of celibacy and with singing, dancing and
heart-enchanting musical instruments.

582. Then on the last dark fifteenth of the year, one should perform Sraddha
and offer food to the dogs, at one’s desire.

583-84. O descendant of Kasyapa, on the first day in the beginning of the
blight half of Caitra, the worship of Brahma must be performed by the wise
with various sorts of flowers, scents, clothes, ornaments, incenses,
fire-worships and pleasing of the Brahmanas.

585. On that very day, Mahasanti ceremony should be performed by the rich, for
the obtainment and preservation of wealth.

586. O descendent of Kasyapa, on that very day should be worshipped Time, as
formerly, the reckoning of time was started on that day.

587. On that very day, verily, Brahma created this world at sun-rise. O best
among the twice-borns, we have heard thus.

588. The gods Brahma Visnu and Mahesvara should be worshipped. Rites for
propitiating planets and constellations should be performed in accordance with
the instructions of an astrologer.

589. O giver of honour, all the planets, and all the stars should be
worshipped, and also the year and all other parts of Time.

590. Kala and Kalpa both are to be worshipped and so also fourteen Manus who
had been in the past and shall be in future. Listen to their names from me.

591-92. First of all (comes) Svayambhuva Manu, then (come) Svarocisa Manu,
Uttama, Tamasa, Raivata, Caksusa, Vaivasvata, Arkasavarni, Brahmasavarni,
Bhadresa, Daksasavarni, Raucya and Bhautya.

593-95. O Brahman, fourteen lords Or the gods namely Vihabhuk, Vipascit,
Sucitti, Nidhi, Vibhu, Manojava, Tejasvi, Vadi, Adbhuta, Santi, Vrsa – the
excellent god, Rtudhama – the lord of the gods, Suci and Sukla are to be

O best among the twice-born, the worship of Yugas (Ages) also should be

596-97. Five Samvatsaras, two Ayanas, six seasons and twelve months should be
worshipped. Two fort-nights and fifteen dates should also be worshipped.
Caranas, Muhurtas and Rasis should be worshipped separately.

598-600. Marici, Atri, Angira, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrgu, Sanatkumara,
Sanaka, Sanandana, Dharma, Vasistha, Satya, Kama, Artha, Hutasana, Vasus,
Rudras, the guardians of the worlds who live on the Lokaloka mountain, and the
guardians of the quarters namely, Sudhama, Sankhapada, Ketuman and Hiranyaroma
should also be worshipped.

601-605. O best of the Brahmanas, Sakra etc. (should be worshipped) and so
also the daughters of Daksa, namely, Sati, Khyati, Smrti, Svaha, Anasuya,
Svadha, Priti, Ksama, Sambhuti, Sannati, Arundhati, Kirti, Laksmi, Dhrti,
Medha, Tusti, Sraddha, Kriya, Mati, Buddhi, Lajja, Vasu, Santi, Pusti, Siddhi,
Rati, Arundhati Vasudhasi, Lamba, Bhanu, Marutvati, Samkalpa, Muhurta, Sadhya,
Visva, Aditi, Diti, Kala, Danayu, Simhika, Muni, Kadru, Krodha, Ira, Pava
Vinata, Surabhi, Khasa, Bhrsasva, Suprabha and Jaya.

606. Bahuputra and his two wives should be worshipped. Aristanemi accompanied
by his four wives should be worshipped.

607. Rddhi, Vrddhi, Nidra, Dhanesa and Nadakubara (should be worshipped). The
treasures Sankha and Padma should be worshipped and so also Bhadrakali and

608. Vellas, Upavedas, Vedangas, all the abodes of knowledge, Nagas, Yaksas,
Pisacas, Garuda and Aruna (should be worshipped).

609. Of the continents, namely, Jambu, Saka, Kusa, Kraunca, Salmali, Gomeda
and Puskara each should be worshipped separately.

610. (The seas) of salty water, milk, butter, curd, wine, sugarcane-juice and
tasty water (should be worshipped).

611-12a. Holy Uttara Kurus, Ramya, Hairanvata, Bhadrasva, Ketumala, Ilavrta.
Harivarsa, Kimpurusa and Bharatavarsa (should be worshipped).

612b-15. Nine divisions of Bharata, namely, Indradyumna, Kaseruman, Tamravarna
Gabhastiman, Nagadvipa, Saumya, Gandharva, Varuna and this Manavadvipa
surrounded by the seas should also be worshipped. Four oceans should be
worshipped and so also the seven Nether worlds, namely, Rukmadbhauma,
Silabhauma, Nilamrttika, Raktabhauma, Pitabhauma, Sveta and Krsnaksiti.

616-17. O best among the twice-borns, Kalagniruda, Sesa, Varaha, Hari and the
worlds, namely, Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svar, Mahah, Janah, Tapas and Satya should be
worshipped. One should worship the Earth, the Water the Fire, the Air, and the

618-620. (One should worship) the Mind, the Intelligence the Soul and the
unmanifested Purusa. (One should worship) Himavant, Hemakuta, Nisadha, the
mountain Nila, Sveta, Srngavan, Meru, Malyavan and Gandhamadana.

The chief mountain named Manasottara should be worshipped and so also
Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Suktiman, Rksavan, Vindhya, Pariyatra and Kailasa –
the best of the mountains.

621-622. O giver of honour! (one should worship) the seven rivers (namely),
Bhagirathi, Pavani, Hladini, Hradini, Sita, Vanksu and Sindhu. (One should
worship) Suprabha, Kancanaksi, Visala, Manasahrada, Sarasvati, Oghananda and
Sumeru having unsullied water.

623-624. (One should worship) sacred places such Puskara, and rivers such as
the Vitasta and others. (One should worship) Saci, Vanaspati, Gauri, Dhumrorna
of beautiful form, Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka and auspicious Anumati. (One should
worship) Ayati, Niyati, Prajna, Mati, Vela and Dharini.

625. (One should worship) the two gods, namely, Dhata and Vidhata, and also
the seven metres. (One should worship) Airavana, Surabhi and Uccaihsravasa.

626. (One should worship) Dhanvantari, Dhruva, and arms and weapons. (One
should worship) Kumara, Vinayaka and Vinayakas.

627. (One should worship) Sakha, Visakha, Skanda, Naigamesa, the wind-Gods and
Fever – the lord of diseases.

628. (One should worship) Valakhilya sages and Kasyapa, Agastya and Narada.
(One should) worship also the holy nymphs and the gods who drink Soma.

629. (One should worship) Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Visvedevas, Asvinas, Bhrgus,
Angiras, Sadhyas and highly strong Maruts.

630. (One should worship) the twelve suns (namely Dhata, Mitra, Aryama, Pusa,
Sakra, Amsa, Varuna, Bhaga, Tvasta, Vivasvan, Savita and Visnu).

631. Dhara, Dhruva, Bhoja, Apa, Anila, Anala, Pratyusa and Prabhasa are
proclaimed to be eight Vasus.

632-33. Angaraka, Surya, Nirrti, Ghosa, Ajaikapad, Ahirbudhnya, Dhumaketu,
Dhvaja, Vahana, Isvara, Mrtyu, Kapali and Kankana, these eleven Rudras should
be known as the lords of three worlds.

634. Kratu, Daksa, Vasu, Satya, Kala, Kama, Dhvani, Kuru, Vak and Danuja,
those ten shining ones are called Visve (devas).

635-36. O best among the speakers, Nasatya and Dasra should be known as

Bhuvana, Bhanava, Sujanya, Sujana, Tyaja, Suva, Murdha, Daksa, Vaya, Bandhuka,
Prasava and Vyaya are regarded as twelve Bhrgus.

637-38a. Atma, Ayus, Manas, Daksa, Mada, Prana, Havisman, Gavistha, Rta and
Satya these ten highly strong gods are the sons of Angira.

638b-39. Manas, Mada, Prasna, Nara, mighty Pala, Diti, Haya, Naya, Hamsa,
Narayana, Vibhu and Prabhu are pronounced as twelve Sadhyas.

640-45. These forty nine, namely, Ekajyoti, Dvijyoti, Trijyoti, Jyoti,
Ekacakra, Dvicakra, highly strong Tricakra, Rtajit, Satyajit, Susena, Senajit
Agnimitra Arimitra, Prabhumitra, Aparajita, Rta, Rtavan, Dharta, Nidharta,
Varuna, Dhruva, Vidharana, highly strong Devadeva, Idrksa, Adrksa, Ihadrk,
Amitasana, Krtina, Prasakrd, Daksa, highly glorious Samara, Dhata, Ugra,
Dhanu, Bhagma, Abhiyukta, Sadasaha, Dyuti, Vasuratha, Adrsya, Vama, Kamajaya,
Virat… are called Maruts.

646-47 Visvakarma, the originator of all crafts, should also be worshipped. O
Brahman, each of these, namely, the weapon, the conveyance, the umbrella, the
seat, the emblem and the drum, should be worshipped separately with scents,
garlands, paints, offerings of lamps, incense and the eatables.

648-49. Having performed the worship of these, one should worship specially
the planet, the Naga and the month which presides over the year, and (should
worship) also the planet of the future year, and the (presiding) day of the

649-50. The wise would know the planet and the month from the mouth of the
astronomer. The month, the year and the day also should be known from the
astronomer. These should be worshipped with plenty of food and heaps of

651. Having known the day of the Naga-year from the Phalaveda, one should
worship that (day) with solid food and other articles of diet.

652. Then, fire-sacrifice with utterances of Omkara should be performed, with
reference to all, in due order, with purified butter, unhusked barley and

653. Sacrificial fee should be given to the Brahmanas with separate reference
to each of those (planets etc.). Then Brahmanas, the friends, the relations
connected by marriage and the kinsmen should be fed.

654. Special meals should be taken and a great festival should be celebrated.
O best among the twice-borns, Brahmana astronomers should be worshipped.

655. The best of the Brahmanas – those who are acquainted with
astronomy-astrology and those who know history – should be honoured with
cash-money, heaps of grains and clothes.

656. 0 twice-born, the reciters (of the Puranas and the Epics) desiring
sacrificial fee should also be worshipped. One should decorate one’s own self
with flowers, ornaments and perfumes.

657-59. This is called Mahasanti, the destroyer of all sins, the pacifier of
all evils, the destroyer of bad dreams of Kali, the giver of long life and
prosperity, the increaser of wealth and prosperity, the destroyer of diseases
and enemies, the cause of the advancement of the government and the country,
auspicious, holy, and the giver of happiness in both the worlds.

660. 0 best among the twice-borns, all those who have been mentioned by me
before you, go to the abode of Brahma in the beginning of the month Caitra.

661. 0 always sinless one, the assembly of Brahma assuming (different) forms
at will, bears specially a steady form, heart-enchanting and undefinable.

662. In that assembly, the above-mentioned (gods etc.) salute, serve and
praise Brahma undefinable and completely detached (from worldly fetters).

663. Visvavasu, Salisi, the two Gandharvas Haha and Huhu and others led by
Narada sing (the praises of) the preceptor of the world.

664-65. Thousands of divine damsels, specially Urvasi, Menaka, Rambha,
Mitrakesi, Alambusa, Vigvaci, Ghrtaci, Pancacula, Tilottama, Sanumati, Amala,
Vanda and others dance near the lord of the gods.

666. Then, in that assembly of all the gods, the god Brahma appoints the
planets etc. as protectors of the Human year.

667. 0 best among the twice-borns, having worshipped the sustainer of the
worlds, the gods – pleased and strengthened – go after this, to their
respective places.

668. 0 best among the twice-borns, Sri should be worshipped on the 5th of the
bright-half in the month of Caitra. That is called Sri-Pancami.

669-70. The fifth day deserves worship by all means and definitely so the one
in the month of Caitra. O best among the twice borns, he who worships Laksmi
on all the fifth days, is not separated from her throughout his life and after
death he obtains the world of Visnu.

671-72. Skanda should be worshipped there with fragrant garlands, scents,
ornaments, clothes, cock, bell, goat, toy and nice eatable offerings.

673. This 6th of Caitra is (to be celebrated) necessarily, the rest (may be
celebrated) at one’s will. All the children remain healthy in his house who
celebrates this.

674. On that very 9th, the purified man, observing fast, should worship
Bhadrakali with plenty of flowers, incense and grains.

675. Bhadrakali who rules over the gods, should be worshipped on all the 9th
days, (but) he who worships her on that (9th), obtains success in his

676-77. 0 best among the Brahmanas, the deity presiding over house should be
worshipped on the 11th of the bright half of the month of Caitra, with
flowers, ornaments, incense, vegetables of various sorts, incenses of various
types and worship of fire and the Brahmanas.

678. On the bright 12th of the month of Caitra, Vasudeva should be worshipped
in the proper way after observing fast.

679. Kamadeva (painted) on a cloth should be worshipped with various types of
garlands and diverse incenses, on the 13th of the bright half of Caitra.

680. One should decorate one’s own self and worship the ladies of the house. O
twice-born, this (13th day) should be necessarily celebrated, the rest may be
or may not be celebrated.

681-82. 0 descendant of Kasyapa, best among the Brahmanas, on the 12th, a
pitcher full of cold water and decorated with flowers and leaves should be
placed before Kamadeva (Cupid), and before sun-rise a husband himself should
bathe his wife with water (from that pitcher).

683. 0 best among the twice-born, on the 15th of the bright-half of the month
of Caitra, Nikumbha goes for fighting with the Pisacas in the sea of sand.

684. So, in every house, the worship of every one of those (Pisacas) should be
performed with effort, in the noon. Know the procedure from me.

685-86. Having made the (image of the) Pisaca with clay, leaves etc., one
should worship that (image) with scents, garlands, clothes, ornaments, the
eatables, namely, sweetmeats, cakes, meat, drinks, weapons of various sorts,
umbrella, shoes and stick.

687-88a. Men should offer to him, two baskets full of dried food and those
eatables which may last long. Singing should be carried on and the instruments
Anaddha and Tantri should be played upon.

688b-689. Having worshipped him in the middle of the day, the wise should,
according to his means, again worship him, as before, at the moon-rise. Then,
he – benediction for whom has been pronounced by the Brahmanas – should be
sent off.

690. The musical instrument Tantri should be played upon while he is being
sent. O descendant of Kasyapa, he must be followed on the next day.

691-692. And the nearby hill should be climbed. After returning to home, the
festival should be celebrated by singing, and playing on musical instruments.
Special meals should be taken in the company of friends.

693. A nymph named Ira, employed by Visvavasu, was formerly cursed by Sakra
(and) was exiled from the assembly of the gods.

694. She attained the state of being a plant in the Himavat, the best of the
mountains. After Nikumbha’s exit, her body breaks up into various forms.

695-96. When the goddess Ira is adorned with Ira flowers, he wise man – well
dressed, well-anointed, good-minded and well-concentrated should go to
Ira-garden, accompanied by Ira wife and host of sons, and should worship the
goddess his with other flowers.

697. (He) should offer various sorts of eatables and nourishments along with
earthen lamps. Special meals should be taken after going to Ira-garden.

698. Then, the Brahmanas, the wife, the friends and the relatives should be
honoured with Ira-flowers. Ira-flowers should be stitched together with a red

699. Those (stitched flowers) should be worn by one’s own self and specially
offered to the ladies. Vocal and instrumental music should be listened to, and
dance-performances should be seen.

700. Special drink containing Ira-flowers should be taken. Ira (flowers)
should be presented to the gods. The gods are pleased in that way.

701. With him who well-concentrated offers one thousand Ira (flowers) to
Kesava, the lord of the gods is pleased and he goes to heaven.

702. Rudra, Brahma, the Moon, the Sun, Subha, Karisini and Durga should be
worshipped with Ira (flowers). All the gods are pleased (with the offerings of
Ira flowers)

703. Ira is favourite of the Nagas and specially mine.

704. I am excessively pleased with him who worships me with Ira flowers in

705. On the third of the bright (half) of the month of Vaisakha, sacrifice
should be performed with barley, and barley should be given to a Brahmana.

706. One should worship Visnu with barley and also eat barley. O descendant of
Kasyapa, the worship of Ganga should be performed on that day.

707. Muttering of god’s name, sacrifices, oblations to the manes, penance,
bath etc. all are said to be imperishable (on that day). Even a little charity
becomes perpetual.

708. Having undergone fast on the second (day), (these rites) should be
performed strenuously by men on the third day, on the bank of the Sindhu.

709-710a O Brahman, the god Visnu, the lord of the world, shall be (born as)
the preceptor of the world, Buddha by name, at the time when the Pusya is
joined with the moon, in the month of Vaisakha, in twenty eighth Kali Age.

710b-12. Listen from as to how his worship should be performed in the
bright-half, from that period onwards, in future. The image of Buddha should
be bathed (with water rendered holy) with all medicinal herbs, all jewels and
all scents, in accordance with the sayings of the Sakyas. The dwellings of the
Sakyas (i.e. Viharas) should be whitewashed with care.

713. Here and there, the Caityas – the abodes of the god – should be provided
with paintings. The festival, swarming with the actors and the dancers, should
be celebrated.

714. The Sakyas should be honoured with Civara (the dress of a Buddhist
mendicant), food and books. All this should be done till the advent of Magha.

715. O twice-born, eatable offerings should be made for three days. Worship
with flowers, clothes etc. and charity for the poor (should continue for three

716. 0 best among the twice-borns, the Brahmanas should be worshipped with
sesame, on the full moon day of Vaisakha. Bath, sacrifice, and funeral rites
(should be performed) with sesame.

717-18. Gift of wealth should be made and earthen lamps should be given for
the temple. Sesame should be offered to the Brahmanas and sesame should also
be eaten.

719. O best among the twice-borns, on 11th of the dark half of Magha, one
should undergo fast and on the 12th, should do everything prescribed by me in
connection with Vaisakha.

720. On the full moon day of Vaisakha, one should worship seven or five
Brahmanas with Black or other sesame mixed with honey.

721. Whatever sin is committed throughout life is destroyed that very moment,
when (the thought) “May Dharmaraja be pleased” comes to the mind.

722. Thereafter, barley – the king of the medicinal herbs becomes ripe. The
gods and the manes should be worshipped then with barley-grains.

723. Then, one – anointed, garlanded and dressed in new clothes – should eat
barley-food in proper procedure, amidst sounds of musical instruments and the

724-25. O lord of the twice-borns, on the 8th after (the full moon day of)
Jyestha, one should worship Vinayaka along with his ganas, with heaps of
sweetmeats. sweet vocal and instrumental music and pleasing of the Brahmanas.

726. Or Vinayaka should be worshipped on all the 8th days. Worshipping him
after undergoing fast, one gets success in undertakings.

727-28. O best among the twice-borns, when the conjunction of Svati
constellation takes place in the month of Asadha then should be worshipped the
god Wind, with scents, garlands, much rice cooked in milk, various types of
ground parched grains, varied flowers and other blossoms.

729. O Brahman, in the end of the bright half of Asadha, a festival with vocal
and instrumental music should be celebrated for five days, for bringing sleep
to the god.

730. On the 11th and the 14th, Dhanahotra should be performed and vigil should
be observed for two nights. The Brahmanas and the Satvatas should be
worshipped on the 12th and the 15th.

731-32. On the 13th, gifts for dramatic performances should be made in a
proper procedure and money should be given, as far as the means may allow, to
those who earn their living through stage.

733. What has he – the high minded – to do with violent sacrifices, by whom
Kesava has been worshipped in the ceremonies of Causing Sleep and Awakening?

734. When the conjunction of Vaisvadeva constellation takes place in the end
of the month of Asadha, the learned scholar should worship the gods, in the
manner prescribed in the case of Wind-god.

735-36. On the occasion of Daksinayana (the southern progress of the sun), one
should give to the Brahmanas, ground parched-grains mixed with milk, snow,
sugar, green vegetables, umbrella, shoes, garlands and water receptacles full
of cold water.

737-38. O twice-born, Kasyapa – the founder of this country – should be
worshipped at the appearance of Rohini constellation after (the full moon day)
of Asadha, with scents, garlands, eatable offerings and worship of the
Brahmanas. Rohini cows along with their calves should be worshipped on that

739. At the appearance of Sravana, one should take bath in the confluence of
the Vitasta and the Sindhu and worship the bow-holder (Visnu) – the god of the

740. After calling upon the Brahmanas to pronounce benedictory formulae, one
should play to get pleasure and should take there, verily, special meals.

741. The chantings of the Samaveda should be listened to on that day, and the
unmarried girls should specially play in the water.

742. At the time, when the moon is united with Sravana constellation, one who
takes bath, gets prosperity in all places and times.

743-44. O twice-born, the god Madhusudana is born in the human world for
removing the burden (of the earth) on the dark eighth following the (full moon
day of) Sravana, in the end of the 28th Dvapara. O best among the twice-borns,
it is heard by us.

745. From that period onwards, the worship of the god of gods and the goddess
should, be performed on that day, in the proper manner.

746-47. O best among the twice-borns, Devaki and Yasoda should be worshipped
on that day, with scents, garlands, eatables made of barley and wheat,
eatables mixed with cow’s milk, and fruits of various types. Having performed
worship thus, a great festival should be celebrated at night.

748-49. In the morning, before the rising of the sun, women dressed in clothes
dyed with safflowers, should carry all the images, amidst charming sounds of
vocal and instrumental music, to the beautiful and auspicious bank of a river
or a lonely lake.

750. Eatables made of barely along with preparations of sugarcane, pepper and
purified butter should be eaten on that day.

751. Then, on the dark fifteenth united with Pitr constellation, satiating
libations of water and other oblations for the manes should be offered with

752-53. Subhasitas, Barhisads, Agnisvattas, Kravyada, Upahutas, Ajyapas and
Sukalins, all these hosts of Fathers should be worshipped with a great
quantity of food, incense and flowers. O best among the twice-borns, funeral
rites with sesame should be performed with effort, on that day.

754. On everyday of the bright-half of the month of Pausta, Mahendra and the
goddess Sati (Saci?) should be worshipped.

755. O best among the twice-borns, painted on the cloth, he should be
worshipped in the proper manner by kings as indicated by an astrologer.

756. The cowherd should worship the Brahmanas with eatables, grains, fruits,
herb-roots, jewels, clothes and incense.

757-58. Mahendra should be worshipped along with his host (of warriors), the
weapons and the mount. O Brahmana, on the bright fifth of Indra’s fortnight,
my worship should be performed with a great quantity of scents, incense and
grains, gifts of garlands and clothes, gratification of the sacred fire and
the Brahmanas, gifts of various sorts for the dramatic performances, and
decorations of the earth. The worship of the local Naga also should be
performed on that very day.

760. In the fortnight following that (Indra Paksa), Sraddha should be
performed everyday specially with Syamaka corn except on the fourteenth.

761a. The fourteenth (day of the fortnight) is prescribed for those who were
killed by means of weapons.

761b-62. Kesava has stated that Sraddha may be performed for the whole of the
fortnight or it may be performed in the fortnight excepting its (first) one-
third part, or in the last one-third. On the thirteenth, however, Sraddha must
be performed necessarily.

763-64. O best among the twice-borns, even he who lives on the bread supplied
by others, he who has got no wealth and he who is a manual labourer, should,
somehow or other, perform the funeral rites on the thirteenth. Know while I am
saying. Here is the verse sung by the Fathers.

765. Will he be born in our family who may offer to us milk mixed with honey,
on the thirteenth in Varsa and Magha?

766. O best among the twice-borns, the wise men should always worship the
guardians of the quarters on the 4th which falls in the fortnight of the
funeral rites in the month of Prausthapada.

767-69. Weapons should be worshipped at night in the temple of Durga. O
descendant of Kasyapa, after taking bath in the morning and after worshipping
all (the things) mentioned above, one should take one’s meals and perform
expiatory rites when the sun is just to set. This (ceremony) called Nirajana
should be known by those who are adept in the performance of Salihotra and are
thus the preservers of astronomy (described) in the Kalpa (Sutras) and the
works related to the Atharvaveda. After this, should be worshipped those
who-earn their living by means of stage- performances.

770-74. O twice-born, when the thousand-rayed (sun) is united with Kanya
constellation then one should observe fast and worship the sage Agastya, with
full pitchers, gourds, barley, rice, purified butter, beautiful Jati, Padma
and Utpala (flowers), white sandalwood, cow, bull, clothes, jewels born-of the
sea, umbrella, shoes, staff, slippers, a great quantity of rice cooked in
milk, nice fruits and herb-roots, various sorts of food, eatables, by feeding
the fire and the Brahmanas, and by giving up eating of one fruit for the
complete year. Having thus worshipped Agastya, one should worship the

775. Then, one should see the great sage Agastya as shown by him (astrologer).
A man gets the desired objects after seeing the sage Agastya.

776. When the grains are ripe, one should, on a day of the bright fortnight
prescribed by an astrologer, worship the gods, the manes, the water, the fire
and the Brahmanas.

777-78. Having worshipped the twice-born and the astrologer, one – dressed in
new clothes, well-anointed, well- adorned, garlanded, facing the east,
purified, with Vedic recitations in front…

779. Having painted in the centre Brahma and hooded Ananta, one should paint
(the figures of) the guardians of the directions established in their
respective directions.

780. Their worship should be performed with incense, garlands, unguents,
clothes, jewels, fruits and eatables, and by gratifying the fire and the

781. Rice mixed with sugar and the preparations of all (other) grains should
be given to the Brahmanas, the servants and the relatives.

782-83. Rice should be eaten by the wise (persons) themselves at night and not
in the day time. Absence of wealth dwells during the day in rice, at night in
curd and ground parched grains and always in Bauhinia variegata (kovidara) and
Feronia Elephantum (kapittha).

784. On the 5th of that (fortnight), the god (Varuna) – the lord of the waters
– should be worshipped. Just as the goddess Uma is to be worshipped so (should
be worshipped) Dhanada.

785. The virgins should be bathed on the 6th of that very (fortnight), and
should be decorated on the seventh.

786-87. Men should decorate themselves and also the women and the children.
With their bodies anointed with moist vermillion-powder, they should play for
pleasure amidst dances and instrumental music, on the 8th of the same
(fortnight). After taking bath, one should worship the goddess named Asokika.

788. Flowers, food, incense, bed and seat along with the upper blanket should
be offered. Food mixed with sugar should be eaten.

789-90. He who desires to get prosperity, should worship Uma on that day, with
incense, food, earthen lamps, garlands, curd, grains or sugar, or safflowers
and salt or saffron, collyrium and bangles. After going to a garden adorned
with water (falls) and trees…

791-92. O best among the the twice-borns, then a noble man temperate in food
should take bath in the water of the Vitasta, for seven days on 10th etc. –
three days before, three days after and on 13th, the birthday of the Vitasta.

793.94. O Brahmana, Vitasta should be worshipped on those seven days, with
scents, garlands, eatable offering, gifts of beautiful earthen lamps, various
sorts of flags, red threads, bangles, various sorts of fruits and by
gratifying fire and the Brahmanas.

795. Gifts for dramatic performances should be made and actors etc. should be
honoured on three days following the birthday of the Vitasta.

796. On the 12th which falls within the festival of the Vitasta, a wise man
should observe fast and worship the god Hari.

797. This is prescribed permanently. Others may or may not be observed. O
twice-born, that 12th is regarded as the Great one and is always auspicious.

799-800a. The 12th which is united with Budha constellation is also stated to
be great. Madhusudana himself told me that the recital of God’s names, bath,
charity funeral rites etc. performed on that (12th), become twelve-fold. O
twice-born, if that 12th is united with Budha and Sravana constellations, that
certainly becomes highly great. Every thing performed on that day becomes

800b-802. One gets the merit which is stated (to be got) at Sannihati, when
the sun is eclipsed if one takes bath on that day, in the confluence of two
rivers, and gives in charity, at that time, a pair of shoes, umbrella, full
pitcher, a pair of clothes, food etc. If one observes the rest (of the 12th
days) one is honoured in Svetadvipa.

803. If that very 12th is united with Sravana constellation, he, if desiring,
may have mastery over the worlds for as long as there are the fourteen Indras.

804-805. Taking out some clay, on that day, from the confluence of Vitasta and
Sindhu, one should always take bath with that at the time of taking bath. By
that (bath) a man gets always the merit of taking bath in the confluence.

806. After that, on the 4th of Asvayuj, the worship of the gods is performed
with all means and in the manner told about the ninth day.

807. There should be honoured the lucky ladies whose husbands are alive and
who are devoted to their husbands, and also the sisters and others.

808. Just as in the month of Asvayuj, so in Magha and so in Jyestha, (these
ladies) should be honoured. Thus, there is the triad of 4th days.

809. Uccaihsrava should be worshipped with effort, in the bright fortnight of
Asvayuj when the moon is united with Svati constellation.

810. O twice-born, if that (union of the moon with Svati constellation) be on
the 9th, then horses should be worshipped and the rites for their pacification
and welfare should be performed daily.

811. (For fastening to the horses) a wise man should piece together paddy
(dhanya), Semecarpusanacardium (bhallataka), Costtus-speciosus (kustha)
Acaruscalamus (vaca) and white mustard (siddharthaka) by means of a thread of
five colours.

812. Sacrifice should be performed in the fire with the mantras dealing with
Vayu, Varuna, Surya, Sakra, Visnu, Visvadevas and Agni.

813. The horses should he controlled by persons holding weapons in their
hands. Beating them and mounting upon them should be prohibited on that day.

814-15. When the moon is united with Sakra constellation, then the best
elephants – Kumuda, Sravana, Padma, Puspadanta, Vamana, Supratika, Anjana and
Nila – should be worshipped. After doing salutation, the same procedure as
told with reference to the horses, should be followed in the case of the

816-19a. Then, on the 8th, the artisans, having undergone fast, should worship
Bhadrakali in proper manner, with valuable incenses, garlands, clothes, lamps,
jewels, eatables, fruits, herb-roots, meat and various sorts of vegetables,
and by gratifying the fire and the Brahmanas. (Bhadrakali should be
worshipped) also with leaves of Bilva, sandalwood, purified butter, drinks of
various types and grains and by decoration of the earth, dancing and singing
and the observation of vigil at night.

819b-20a. O twice-born, the books should be worshipped in the temple of Durga
and the artisans should also worship their tools.

820b-22. Having obtained auspiciously the musical instruments and armours and
weapons, one – with pleased mind – should eat food mixed with curd and
consecrated with sacred formulae by a Brahmana, and give that also to
dependents, friends and astrologers. The women should go to a fruit-tree and

823. Having worshipped the goddess with flowers, lamps, incense, food etc. one
should offer balls of food to an eagle. Gladly accepted by him, the

824-26. O Brahmanas, food should be offered to the friends, the relatives, the
Brahmanas, and the dependents, in spring and winter, on the 8th or the 4th,
and on the 14th and the 9th of the bright fortnight and not of the other one.
Just as the worship of the goddess was performed, so should the meals be taken
in front (of her).

827-28. O Brahman, the wise should, in this very manner, make offerings,
excluding the food-ball for the eagle, to the goddess of the house, in the
beginning of the year.

That (offering) should be made at home and never under a tree.

829. When the beautiful vine-grove is ripe one should go there accompanied by
one’s wife, servants and friends.

830-33. Anointed, bathed, garlanded and well-dressed, one should worship the
goddess Syama, in the vine-grove, with flowers, incense, grains, eatables,
much half-ripe barley, purified butter and honey, and by gratifying the
Brahmanas. O twice-born, the grapes should be offered, first of all, to the
Brahmanas. Then, the meals consisting mostly of grapes should be taken and
after that a festival full of dancing and singing should be celebrated.

834. King’s bath (to be performed) in accordance with the instructions of
works on astrology, which is fruitful at all times, is prescribed on the day
of Pusya constellation in every month.

835-36. O twice-born, all should worship the moon, the stars, the planets and
also the gods of the constellations, with the wealth of flowers, incense and
food, at the time when the moon is united with Janma-constellation. The
Brahmanas and the fire should be worshipped and the festival of vocal and
instrumental music should be celebrated.

837-838. O best among the twice-borns, the king should perform every year, a
Laksahoma and a Kotihoma. The procedure of their performance should be known
from the Kalpa (sutras) and the works related to the Atharvaveda.

839. All these acts which are to be performed always, and others which are for
specific purposes, should be performed after consulting the astrologers and
the priests.

840. O best among the twice-borns, the kings should take the coronation-bath,
every year at the anniversary of their coronation, always in the same manner
as in the beginning.

841-43. Having undergone a fast, the priest should give offerings in the
sacrificial fire, with the groups of formulae, namely Pratiratha, Sabda,
Varsa, Ayusya and Abhaya, and with mantras sacred to Visnu, Sakra, Savita,
Brahma, Rudra and Varuna. The city should be made swarming with flags and

844. The road should be made dustless by (sprinkling) pure waters. The
citizens – bathed and well-dressed – should wear garlands.

845. The prominent courtesans, the prominent citizens, the outsiders and the
chiefs of the ganas should go to the palace of the king.

846. The city and the roads should be adorned by actors and dancers. The pious
king, who has already taken bath, should be again bathed with the five
products of the cow (i. e. milk, curd, butter, urine and dung).

847-48. He should be bathed by the chiefs of ganas of the Sudras, the Vaisyas,
the Ksatriyas and the Brahmanas, (standing) in west, south, east and north
respectively, by means of pitchers made of earth, brass, silver and gold and
full of water, milk, curd and purified butter.

849. A great uproar consisting of the sounds of musical instruments,
conch-shells, wishes for happy day along with (the sounds of) professional
singers, should be made at the time of bath.

850. The subordinate kings should have umbrellas and chowries in their hands.
The king who has already taken bath, should be again bathed with clays, in the
proper order.

851. Then, the head of the kings should be purified with the clay from the
peak of a mountain, the ears should be sanctified (with the clay) from an
ant-hill and the neck with that from the temple of Sakra.

852-53. His heart should be purified with the clay from the door of king’s
palace, and the back with the clay from the temple. The right arm (should be
purified) with the clay dug by means of elephant’s tusk and the other one,
with the earth dug with the horn of the bull. His waist (should be purified)
with the earth from the door of a Vaisya and his thighs with the earth from a
lake of lotuses.

854-55, The citizens – bathed and well-dressed – should hold auspicious things
in their hands. Already bathed, the king should again be bathed with (water
sanctified with) all auspicious herbs, all scents, all jewels, all seeds, all
flowers, all fruits, Durva-grass, Gorocana paint and sprouts.

856-58a. Then, keeping ahead the priest seated on bhadrasana, the well-dressed
people – the Brahmanas, the Ksatriyas, the Vaisyas, the chiefs of the Sudras,
the leading courtesans and the merchants – should anoint the king in proper
manner, in accordance with the sayings of the astrologer, with the water of
the sacred places brought there, as far as possible.

858-60. Then, the king – bathed, anointed, crowned, garlanded, diademed and
decorated – should worship the gods, touch the auspicious objects, give the
last offering (in the sacrifice) and after that, honour with heaps of wealth,
the astrologer along with the priest and other Brahmanas, as far as the means
may allow. He should also announce freedom from fear.

861. He should release all who are gone to the slaughter-house, like the
animals (gone to the slaughter house). All, except those who are thorns for
the world, should be released from bondage.

862. The Home-priest himself should make the king sit on an auspicious and
beautiful Lion-throne covered with the skin of a tiger.

863-65. With auspicious objects in their hands, all the subjects should see (

Having worshipped the umbrella, the weapons, the arrays of elephants and
horses, he should climb- a decorated elephant and give away heaps of wealth.

Having gone around the whole of the city, he should return to his home, honour
the subordinate kings and the leading citizens with wealth and bid farewell to

866. Having got up, the king should daily worship the gods, the twice-born,
and the fire and see the (reflection of his own) face in purified butter.

867. (He should) listen to the announcement of the date and the constellation
and act according to the instructions of the physician. Having gone to the
court, he should see to the legal procedure impartially.

868. O best among the twice-borns, (the king) should never insult anybody and
should always check internal dissension.

869. This country being difficult to approach and so free from the fear of the
circle of enemies, the strongly-rooted kings are destroyed here due to
internal dissension.

870. O twice-born, the gods always reside in Kasmira-mandala. Devotion must be
shown towards them and also towards the Nagas and the Brahmanas.

871. The Pisacas also should be worshipped with the rites including
home-offerings. The people should be settled well and made to follow the
(traditions of the) country.

872-73. All the people immigrating (to Kasmira) from the other directions,
should be honoured. O descendant of Kasyapa, all should be penalized in
accordance with their crimes. The king should neither be very hard in giving
punishment nor should forgive anyone. He should carry on the administration in
accordance with the instructions of the treatises on polity.

874. O Brahman, during the six months, when Nikumbha has gone out and not
returned, the kings should go on pilgrimage, to the temple of the god.

875. O Brahman, listen from me, who is telling the procedure in which the
festival of the pilgrimage should be celebrated, in every temple of the gods,
at least once a year.

876-78. Praised is the pilgrimage on the 4th to the abode of Vinayaka, on the
6th to the abode of Kumara, on the 7th to that of the sun, on the 9th to the
temple of Durga on the 5th to the temple of Sri, on the 8th or the 14th to the
temple of Mahadeva, on the 8th to the temple of Sakra, on the bright 151h to
that of the Moon, on the 4th to that of Dhanada and on the 5th to that of

879-80. The fifth, the twelfth and the fifteenth are honoured for pilgrimages
to the abodes of all the Nagas.

O descendant of Kasyapa, the bright fifteenth is prescribed (for visiting the
abodes of) all the gods. The houses of the guests may be visited on all the

881. He who intends to go on a journey should, first of all, worship the lord
of Vinayakas, on an auspicious day, with heaps of sweetmeats.

882. On the 2nd day should be observed the pacification of the planets and on
the 3rd should be performed the worship of the Gandharvas.

883. On the 4th, the Pisacas should be worshipped and on the 5th should be
performed the worship of the local Naga.

884. On the 6th day, the Brahmanas should be honoured and on 7th, the poor and
the helpless.

885. Listen to the procedure, in which the bath giving ceremony should be
celebrated, after having performed thus properly, the sacrifice for seven

886-87. The temple of the god should be whitewashed and painted. Having thus
performed the sacrifice decorated with multitude of flowers, the image should
be bathed, in accordance with the instructions of Kalpa and Sakha, amidst
sounds of good-day songs and dances of fortunate ladies.

888. Thereafter, the citizens, with dances leading their procession, should
bring the holy water for bathing the image, with great pomp and show.

889. (The water should be brought) from a sacred place situated near by,
placed either on the back of an elephant or in a conveyance drawn by horses or
bulls or men. 890. Having got (water), they should bathe the image with that
(water) in the proper manner. As regards the city, the same procedure as told
with reference to the coronation of the king, should be followed.

891. At the arrival of the day of the pilgrimage, Kutagara decorated with
clothes, garlands, scents and banners should be constructed.

892-93. Having placed there the (original) image and another of similar form,
the Kutagara should be drawn by horses or bulls or strong men decorated with
garlands and clothes. The king along with his army should follow.

894. If the city has no king, the president (Pradhana) should accompany (the
procession). Others should offer worship with incense at various places.

895. Amidst murmuring sounds, high sounds and the cries of victory, the
auspicious Kutagrha should be carried around the city through an even road.

896. Then, after the entrance of the image into the temple of the god, a great
festival of singing and dancing should be celebrated.

897. The arrangements for dramatic performances of those who earn their living
by the stage, should be made on the next day. O best among the twice-borns,
money should be given to wrestlers and others in accordance with their
strength and efficiency.

898. O best among the twice-borns, at the time of the dramatic performances,
the human spectators should be honoured with betel-globes, flowers etc.

899. 0 best among the twice-borns, cooked rice along with flowers and fruits
should be scattered for the beings, who are invisible spectators in the cave.

900. The lord of the Nagas spoke thus to that Brahmana possessed of fame. This
should be done with effort, by those who desire health, (long) life, and

901. For those people who shall act according to the instructions of Nila as
far as their means permit, there shall be health, (long) life and much wealth.

902-3. After death, these people will certainly go to the world of the gods.
Their sons and grandsons also shall share heaven, (long) life and wealth and
shall be provided with long life. There is no doubt here. All the sayings of
Nila are known to you also, O king!

904-6. So having heard (all this), act thus as to bring more happiness in the
world and the country. Whatever instruction of Nila has been in abeyance due
to the fault of time, revive all that, O king, the giver of honour, at my

If the instructions of Nila are not followed, then occur here floods, excess
of rain, drought, famine, deaths, untimely death of the king, and dreadful
punishments from the king.

907. The snow-fall also occurs to a great extent. So the instructions of Nila
must be announced to the people repeatedly.

908. Those who act upon them shall be endowed with cattle, grains and wealth.
You, too, shall be always victorious everywhere.

909. Vaisampayana said: “Even told thus by Brhadasva, the king Gonanda
restarted (only a few of the) practices which had been in abeyance due to the
fault of time.

910-11. Thereafter, he was overthrown by Balabhadra at Mathura. If a king of
Kasmira acts upon all the instructions of Nila, he never meets with untimely
death. There never occurs any terror in that country”.

912. Janamejaya (spoke): What did Gonanda – the king of Kasmira – ask after
this, when he had heard from Brhadasva, the customs to be followed by him?”

913. Vaisampayana (said): “Having heard the sayings of Brhadasva, Gonanda –
the king of Kasmira – spoke to Brhadasva, the best of the sages.”

914. Gonanda spoke: “Tell me the names of those Nagas who have mainly their
abodes in Kasmira. I want to hear about them.”

915. Brhadasva said: “(There live) Nila, the king of the Nagas, Vasuki,
Upataksaka, the two Nagas, Kambala and Asvatara, (the two Nagas) Karkotaka and

916. Ailapatra, Ananta, the Nagas Nanda and Upanandaka, Kulika, Svetasankha,
Palasa, Khedima, Badi.

917. Helihala, Sankhapala, the two Nagas Candana and Nandana, the two Nagas
Nila and Mahanila, the two Nagas Vatika and Sandika,

918. Two Padmas, two Mahapadmas, two Kalas, two Kacchapas, two Samudras, two
Samudranas, two Gajas, two Taksakas,

919. Two Nagas named Hastikarna, two Hastis, two Vamanas, Mahisas, two
Varahas, two Nagas named Kupana,

920. Paniya, Anika, Kanakaksa, Kalinkaka, Arjuna, Pundarika, Dhanada,

921. Kheda, Sapala, Kherisa, Lahura, Ledira, Kheda, Pharathada, Jayanta,

922. Two Sudanas, Suparsva, Sunasa, Pancahastaka, Pradyumna, Andhaka, Sambhu,
Salva, Mulesvara, Ghasa,

923. Ugola, Sahunimadhya the two Nagas Gandhila and Picchala, Svadhada,
Musakada, Pisitada, Ghatodana,

924. Narayana, Aniruddha, Vasudeva, Jalandhama, Patra, Manasa, Uttaramanasa,

925. Amanasa, Kapah, Sankarsana, Satacara, Khilecara, Rohinyakhya, Saktika,

926. Akhuphala, Phalapha, the Naga Kanasara, Susrava, Devapala, the Naga-chief

927. two Nagas Candra and Surya, (two Nagas) Suci and Sukla, Viduratha,
Phelada, Sukumara, Khidiva, Vijaya, Jaya,

928. Uduca, Krophana, Vayu, Sukra, Vaisravana, Apama, Mandukanasa, Gandhara,
the Naga Surparki, Dhvani,

929. Samana, Lolabha, Bhadra, Bindu, Bindusara, Nada, Tittiri, Prastabhadra,
the Naga Grahapati,

930. Aparajita, Pandita, Kopati, Durjaya, Astaka, the Naga Himasara, the Naga
Phalasara, Para,

931. The Naga Agrasara, the Naga Nilasara, Viha, Asulaksa, Aksipala, Prahlada,

932. Anista, Sumukha, Veda, Khadgapuccha, Vibhisana, Mauhurtika, Priyasvami,
Kumara, another Candanopama,

933. Kapala, Caranasanda, the Naga Puranaka, Kadamba, Apada, Vali, Vibhuti,

934. Dava, Cakradhara, Svabhra, Bhava, Deharaka, Guda, Andha, Pangu, Kusthi,
Kana, Badhira, Vanthaka,

935. Anagapada, Kitava, Sukara, Prasava, Utkara, Sadhiya, Satapada, Yoga,
Satamukha, Druha,

936. Atinidra, Atibahubhuk, Bindunada, Sirojada, Kamaraksa, Visalaksa,
Suvartaksa, Bhayanaka,

937. Bhuvira, Dharmalavanya, Daityaraja, Sadangula, Gandharva, Dhrtarastra,
Kusuma, Kuhara, Kuha,

938. Mahaksa, Vadhusa, Kadusa, Deva, Danava, Naksatra, Masaka, Pita, Gautama,
Susubha, Jiha,

939. Svarga, Sikharavasi, Srivasa, Sridhara, Khaga, Langali, Balabhadra,
Svarupa, Pancahastaka.

940. Kamarupa, Darikarna, Saptasirsa, Balahara, Sunetra, Bahunetra, Hanuman,
Angada, Hara,

941. Habaka, Pathara, Patha, Mala, Vimalaka, Mata, the Naga Satamukha,
Citrasva, Dadhivabana,

942. Susima, Kaliya, Kala, Patana, Khadira, Atri, Savala, Varnaka, Lalana.

943. Heliyara, Hemiyara, Valira, Keluka, Nimi, Catara, Lelihana, Pancasya,

944. Krta, Treta, Dvapara, Sama, Samvatsara, Khalvata, Bahuroma, Kapoti,

945, Rastresvara, Siniri, Satananda, Atikopana, Ananda, Jayananda, Trisirsa,

946. Gandha, Soma, Gargya, Initi, Saniti, Airavata, Kauravya, Masada,

947. Havotsava, Satha, Sanya, Satrughna, Rama, Laksmana, Mahadeva, Kamapala,
Gosira, Yudhisthira,

948. Danga, Bhuya, Visakha, Soma, Reva, Mahodara, Makara, Makaraksa, Nadbala,
Balavan, Sikhi,

949. Candapatanaka, Kaka, Kebuka, Brahmanapriya, Karavira, Jarasandha,
Nisacara, Divacara,

950. Patanjali, Vatsa, Mathara, Vithara, Vida, Hocara, Karavala, Tapanogha,

951. Karkara, Karavata, Varaghosa, Sumangala, Gullaka, Sambhara, Sami, Paya,

952. Karahala, Kusuratra, Dhaumya, Galava, Ukhola, Sikhola, Vahnirupa,

953. Satyakula, Kulusa, Krpana, Kutaka, Hari, Kumuda, Salabha, Kimsuka,

954. Marakula, Abhrasikhara, Vasistha, Savanamukha, two Nagas Raja and
Maharaja, Subhadra, Bhadravalisa,

955. two Nagas Vira and Brahmana, two Nagas Sarasa and Pukkaka, Dakkaka,
Cakka, Gosa, Vamsanaga,

956. Vidyadhara, Yaksa, Virasa, Sasyavardhana, Bhadrasva, Gajanetra, Kanara,

957. Anaka, Kanava, Camba, Sanda, Marka, Giripriya, Ugrayudha, Abhimanyu,
Amara, Amrtasana,

958. Ajakarna, Gonasa, Sagala, Valakanana, Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya, Sudra,
Dipta, Vihangama,

959. Sankhaksa, Kamalaksa, Maninaga, Bahecaka, Jayanta, Kopana, Visva,
Sakhamukha, Suvarcala,

960. Guha, Sumali, Mali, Malyavan, Anrta, Para, Ksattra, Mabyanaka, Bhisma,
Kasmira, Madhu, Valisa,

961. Bhimaksa, Bhimanada, two Nagas Halusa and Kalusa, Mahendra, Indra,
Sudhama, Saliya, Maliya,

962. Sahasradhara, Dyutiman, Vibhuti, Kavad, Asvara, Savala, Bahurupa,
Bhadrasva, Uttariyasa,

963. Manikantha, Kalola, Suravala, Nupura, Kusakunda, Atulyasa, Ata, Svabhra,

964. Aravinda, Kalhara, Binduman, Dramita, Vata, two Sagaras, two Gangas,
Vaitasta, two Yamunas,

965. Citra, Upacitra, Surabhi, Bhutalacari, Ambaracari, Upacitra, Kankata, two
Nagas Narada and Parvata,

966. Visvavasu, Parijata, Gallululla, Jalalusa, Maksikasvami, Bhurjila,

967. Akadra, Bahukesa, Kesapingala, Dhusara, Lambakarna, Gandala, Naga

968. Avartaksa, Candrasara, Karhasura, Lambaka, Caturveda, three Puskaras,

969. Aksotanaga, Tanka, Syena, Vattila, Kacara, Ksirakumbha, Nikumbha,
Vikumbha, Samarapriya,

970. Elighana, Vighana, Canda, Bhogi, Jvaranvita, Bhoga, Bhagavata, Raudra,
Rudra, Bhojaka, Dehila,

971. Rohina, Bharadvaja, Dadhinakra, Pratardana, two Nagas Januva and Reva,
Satru, Mitra, Kardama,

972. Panka, Kindama, Rambha, Bahubhoga, Bahudara, Matsya, Bhita, Bahutsaha,
Karadi, Vinatapriya,

973. Tamrakara, Rajata, Vamana, Bhavaka, the Naga Jyotisyaka, Vedya,
Dhaurasara, Janardana,

974. Nyagrodha, Dambara, Asvattha, Balipuspa, Balipriya, Angaraka, Sanaiscari,
the Naga Kunjaraka, Budha,

975. Kali, Grtsa, Kutilaka, two Nagas Rahu and Brhaspati, Cauraka, Taskara,
Kelu, and two Nagas Suta and Paurogava,

976. Ajakarna, Asvakarna, Vidyunmali, Darimukha, Orana, Rocana, Hasi, Nartana,

977. Kambhata, Subhata, Bahuputra, Nisacara, Mayura, Kokila, Trata, Malaya,

978. Kotapala, Mahipala, Gopala, Patalasuci, Rajadhiraja, Vinata, Svarga,
Vimalaka, Mani,

979. Cakrahasta, Gadahasta, Suli, Pasi, Saga, the Naga Citrakara, Vatsa,

980. Sitarta, Yavamali, Ravana, Raksasakrti, Yajva, Data, Hota Bhokta and

981-82. O king, these prominent Naga-chiefs have been mentioned by me. As
regards their family comprising of sons and grandsons, that cannot be narrated
by me even in hundreds of years and so also (cannot be narrated) the holy
abodes of all the Nagas.

983. All the Nagas are boon-givers, all are obedient to Nila and all are great
favourites of the high-minded Vasuki.

984-85. Now, I will relate to you (the names of) the guardians of directions,
in Kasmira. Know them, O chief of the kings. The Naga Bindusara is regarded to
be in the eastern direction, the Naga named Srimadhaka in the southern one,
and in the northern direction is stated to be the Naga Uttaramanasa…

986-87. Thus, devoid of grief, thousands, millions and hundred millions of the
Nagas dwell here, leaving aside the fear of Tarksya. Amongst the Nagas who
have been mentioned by me, one (Naga) Sadangula was banished by Nila –
possessed of unlimited lustre.

988-89. The place of Sadangula which was given away to third Mahapadma – the
wise one – was turned into a lake, one Yojana long and one Yojana wide, a
second ocean as it were.

990. (It was the place) which was taken over formerly by Mahapadma in a
disguised way, in accordance with the instruction of Nila, from the king

991-92. Gonanda spoke: “Why was Sadangula exiled from this (place)? How did
the territory of Visvagasva turn into a lake? O pious one, explain all this,
as you are talented.”

993. Brhadsava (said): Having come to know that the Naga Mahapadma had made
his abode in the country of Sati, the son of Vinata used to oppress him,

994. The bird (i. e. Garuda) used to attack and eat up hundreds and thousands
of his sons, dependents and dependents of his dependents.

995. When his people were being thus devoured, the Naga Mahapadma came quickly
to the refuge of the great Naga Nila.

996. He asked, O king, for a habitation in Kasmira. Then Nila spoke thus to
the Naga Mahapadma.

997. “O best among the Bhujagas, all the Nagas have made their abodes here.
There is no place (left) where you may dwell, O best among the Naga-chiefs.

998. O Naga, the lord of undying ones, I do not see even a little space which
has not been thus fully occupied by the Nagas.

999. Moreover, you are surrounded by a big family But at this time, the
beautiful territory of Sadangula is vacant.

1000. The Naga Sadangula has been banished by me from that place, because he,
formerly, used to carry away the wives of men, daily.

1001. O best among the Nagas, having banished him from here, I allotted to him
a place on Usiraka – the best of the mountains – in Darva.

1002. Through a device I appointed him there as a guardian of the territory
and won over the people of Kasmira through affection.

1003. Sadangula – the lord of the Nagas – has been settled by me on an even
road. Honoured by the people, he lives there happily.

1004-5. At my request, Hari himself has given him protection there. Here I
allot to you, as your habitation, the beautiful city named Candrapura, of the
king Visvagasva, in the beautiful territory which belonged to Sadangula. Turn
that into a lake.

1006. Disguised as a madman, once, Durvasa – the best of the sages – did not
get proper reception at the beautiful habitation of Sadangula.

1007. Filled with rage, he pronounced the curse: “It shall turn into a lake.”
O Naga, this saying of the sage is not known to anyone.

1008. I alone know it due to the favour of that sage. Hence, O Naga, make your
abode there. Do not delay.

1009. But (you should) importune the king Visvagasva – the protector of the
earth. You should make request to that king, in disguise.

1010. If due to greed, he would not give when requested to give, in disguise,
he as a king, would be disgraced for not doing that which be must do.”

1011. Brhadahra (spoke): Addressed thus by Nila, the Naga Mahapadma assumed
the form of an old Brahmana and went to the city (named) Candrapura.

1012. He looked at the compassionate king Visvagasva. Then, having seen him,
he made request (to him) as Visnu had made to Bali.

1013. Brahmana (said): ‘~O compassionate king, give me that much dwelling
place at Candrapura, which may be sufficient for my big family.”

1014. Visvagasva (replied): “O chief of the Brahmanas, I give you a beautiful
place in Candrapura. O twice-born, occupy that much (space) which may be
enough for you along with your family.”

1015. Brhadasva (said): Having accepted the water of gift and having
pronounced the benedictory formula, he – in the form of a Naga – spoke to the
king in the midst of ministers.

1016. “Go away from this city, along with your collection of money and other
things, accompanied by your cavalry, elephants and chariots and surrounded by
your own men.

1017. O Lord of men, the city is sufficient for me along with my family. It
will turn into an extensive lake, very soon.”

1018-19. Then, that pious king went away along with his citizens, horses,
elephants and host of ministers, and constructed another beautiful town at a
distance of two Yojanas to the west of his own city. That is famous on the
earth under the name Visvagasvapura.

1020. Worshipping the Brahmanas, the king lived there happily. The Naga
Mahapadma flooded the city.

1021-24. The best of the Nagas lives there happily, along with his family.

And that Mahapadma lake, one Yojana long and one Yojana wide, is holy,
beautiful and pleasing to the hearts of the good.

Due to the influence of Mahapadma, (that lake is) devoid of wicked crocodiles.
The Naga, surrounded by his family, lives there happily.

This birth (story) of the lake Mahapadma has been related by me. What else, O
king, should I relate to you? Tell that.”

1025. Gonanda (spoke): “O Venerable one, I want to hear about the holy places
in the countries of Kasmira. Tell the glorification of seeing them.”

1026. Brhadasva (said): (There is) Vinayaka, the son of Ganga descended from
Vardhanadruma. Having seen him, a man obtains success which brings all sorts
of welfare.

1027. By seeing Kamyavara of similar type, at a distance of one Krosa to its
south-west, one obtains success in one’s undertakings.

1028-30. By seeing with concentrated mind, each and every Ganesa of all these,
namely, Bhurjasvami, Hidimbesa, Lovara, Srivinayaka, Utankesa, Guhavasi,
Bhimesa, Saumukha, Bhadresvara, Mahasya, Mahasana, Gavesana, Paulastya,
Girivasi, Jayesvara and Mahesvara, one obtains accomplishment one’s doings and
enjoys holy merit.

1031. O Lord of men, after taking bath in Patrakunda one obtains the world of
Kumara by seeing Skanda, erected by Pulastya near (the lake of) Saci.

1032-33. By the sight of each and every Kumara namely, Malivana, Gautarnesa,
Visvamitresa. Saunasika, Vasisthesa, Makharesa, Suresvara, Skandesvara,
Visakhesa and another erected by Pulastya, one obtains the merit which accrues
from the gift of cow.

1034-35. Having seen (the images of) Sakra – the performer of hundred
sacrifices – erected by Pulastya, Bharadvaja, Kasyapa, Kanva, Agastya and
Vasistha, one obtains heaven and the merit of giving thousand cows in charity.
A sight of the image of Agni erected by Angira gives heaven.

1036. By seeing Yama – the lord of the Pretas – after having taken bath in
Taijasa, one gets heaven as well as the merit accruing from the gift of a cow
and sesame.

1037. By seeing the son of the Sun god, after having taken bath in Puskara
Tirtha, one is freed from all the sins and is honoured in heaven.

1038. The sight of every one of these viz., Yama, Sutankesa and the lord of
the Pretas erected by Vasistha, releases one from all the sins.

1039-42. These highly strong ones should be specially seen in a night full of
stars. By the sight of that worshipped god known as Virupaksa, one does not
get, at all times, the fear born of the Raksasas. O king, after seeing the
(images of the) god erected by Varuna and Bali, one is freed from all the sins
and enjoys in the world of Varuna. After a bath in the lake of Mahapadma and
on the northern bank of Manasa lake, a mere sight of the temple erected by
Pulastya, gives one the merit of the gift of cows and also releases (one) from
the diseases.

1043-44. One becomes rich by the sight of everyone of these, namely, the god
Dhanesvara near Vitastaksa, (the image of the god) erected by Agastya near
Kapotesvara, Setara, Gotamasvami, Saurnukha and one erected by Surabhi.

1045. After seeing (the image of) Sasanka erected by king Sucandra, a man
obtains the world of the Moon. There is no doubt about this.

1046. By seeing Manibhadra, one becomes possessed of wealth.

1047. One obtains happiness and becomes beautiful after seeing Kamadeva
erected by Agastya on the mountain.

1048. The (image of the) goddess erected by Pulastya is known as Bheda on the

1049. By seeing the goddess erected by Pulastya and accompanied by Kesava, one
is freed from all the sins and gets highest knowledge.

1050. One is honoured in the world of Visnu, by seeing Visoka in Kasmira,
accompanied by Kesava and erected by Him.

1051-53. By a sight of the goddess Bhima, one gets the best wealth and by
seeing the goddess Kapinjali, the goddess Suresvari. (the goddesses)
Bhadresvari, Gautamesi, the goddess Kalasila, (the goddess) named Udyogasri,
(the goddesses) Gavaksi, Candika, Durga, Gauri, Suvijaya, Sakuni, Brahmacarini
and Cakresvari, one gets one’s desire fulfilled.

1054. After seeing near Cakrasvami, the goddess sitting in the lap of Hara,
one is freed from all the sins and is honoured in the world of Rudra.

1055-56. By seeing that (image of) Divakara called Kartaviryrarjunasvami,
(that of) Martanda called Kasyapasvami, (that of) Ravi erected by Visvagasva
and everyone of these, namely, (the images called) Sucandresa, Sucakresa, and
Surabhisvami, one obtains the merit of the gift of horses.

1057-1064. O king, one obtains heaven for one’s ancestors, by seeing the
boon-giver Brahma in the form of a hill, a form which he himself has assumed,
and also (his images called) Visnusvami, Harasvami and Kasyapasvami.

O great king, one is released from all the sins by seeing everyone of these
viz., Sudarsana Hara near Cakrasvami, Svayambhu, (Hara’s image) erected by
the: Fire-god, (Hara’s images called) Pingalesvara, the god Bindunadesvara,
the god Bhadresvara, Candresvara along with Jyesthesa, Valakhilyesvara, Hari,
Kesavesa, Samesa, Dhaumyesa, Varunesvara, Cakresvara along with Candresa,
Kasyapesa, Vilohita, Kamada along with Vasisthesa, Bhutesa along with
Ganesvara, Suryesvara, Bhasmesa and Vimalesvara; (so also) the boon-giver god
(called) Himacalesa, Sankhesa, Vaivartilesvara, Mahanadisvara, Sambhu,
Kasyapesvara, Rajesvara, Nrsimhesa, Bhavesa and Dhanadesvara. O king, the god
Hara – the lord of the Bhutas – is always present (in all these images).

1065-66. By merely seeing Nandi there, one is freed from all sins. Nandisvara
is always pleased and so also is Bhutesvara. O tiger among kings, (their)
presence is due to their desire for doing good to the worlds. Nandi is always
present there due to devotion for Hara.

1067. By seeing Kapotesvara who appears in the midst of waters, one obtains
thousand cows and by worshipping (him) one gets desired refuge.

1068. Gonanda said: “O best of the speakers, how did Nandi propitiate the god,
by which he – present in Bhutesvara – is always near him?”

1069. Brhadasva (replied): “O king, the protector of the earth, listen to the
account as it happened with reference to Nandi, the account which is divine,
heart-enchanting and remover of all sins.

1070-72a. In former times, there was a Brahmana named Silada who had no son. O
king, he went to Nandi mountain and in order to get a son (he) propitiated the
Great God, by eating the powder of rocks for one hundred years. Due to
compassion, the God of the gods, gave to him as a son, his own Ganesa Nandi
possessed of great strength.

1072b-73. While being given as a son, Nandi spoke to Sankara thus: “O lord,
due to (your) favour, I shall become the son of this Brahmana, but O god, let
me be his son, not born from the womb.

1074-76. Moreover, separated from you, I would not stay for long in the human
(world). Smiling with compassion, the god Hara said to him: “O best of the
ganas, you have been cursed by Bhrgu not honoured (by you) in the marriage of
Uma. So (you) shall surely be born in the human form. With that very body, you
shall come near me.

O best of the ganas, thenceforward you shall live in the human world.

1077-78. At your will, you shall live near me, as may give you happiness. You
shall live in the human world, compelled by the curse of Bhrgu, but O lord of
the ganas, there too I shall live according to your desire.”

1079. O king, thus Nandi always lives at Bhutesvara and so also the god Hara
(lives) willingly, due to favour upon him.

1080. Gonanda (said): “How did Nandi – born (in the human world) – become a
son of Silada. How did he attain ganapatihood with his body.”

1081. Brhadasva (said): Then, while grinding a rock, Silada found in the midst
of the rock, the son Nandi not born from the womb and possessed of the lustre
of the moon.

1082. Having got that son, the Brahmana Silada became pleased and thereafter
performed all the ceremonies with reference to the son.

1083. When the ceremonies of the son were being performed, the twice-born
(Silada) heard from the Brahmana that the son was to be short-lived.

1084-1085. Having heard (this), the pious Silada – full of affection for the
son – started weeping. Nandi – the knower of Dharma – consoled him who was
weeping, thus: “Father, do not weep today. For your favourite desire, I shall
obtain long life by propitiating the god Sankara.

1086-87. Saying so to his father and after getting his permission, Nandi
himself – determined to perform penance – went to the auspicious peak of the
Himalaya, known as Haramukuta.

1088. In the eastern half of that peak, there is a laks of clear water called
Kalodaka, the destroyer of all sins.

1089. Placing a big rock on his head and unweariedly engaged in muttering the
name of Rudra in that water, Nandi propitiated Hara.

1090. One hundred years passed away while he was muttering the name of Rudra,
in the water. After the completion of a hundred years the goddess spoke (thus)
to the god:

1091. “O venerable one, my son Nandi is performing austerities at Kaloda.
Endow him, quickly, with a boon. Be not late, O lord!”

1092.93a. O lord of men, thus was the god addressed by the goddess at
Varanasi. Then mounted on the bull and (going) by land-route, the god, along
with the goddess, was not seen by anyone in that area.

1093b-1094. After crossing Prayaga and the great city of Ayodhya, (he crossed)
the holy Naimisa forest and beyond that Gangadvara. From Sthanesvala (he went)
to Kuruksetra and holy Visnupada.

1095-96. Having crossed all these, viz. the Satadru, the Vipasa and the
Iravati, possessed of holy water, the Devika, the Candrabhaga, the auspicious
Visnupada the Visoka, Vijayesa and the confluence of the Vitasta and the
Sindhu, he went to the mountain Bharata.

1097-98. Having reached the foot of that (mountain), he said to the goddess:
“O divine lady, stay here along with the bull, while I shall go further.
Whosoever climbs up this mountain by this way, obtains high merit.

1099. You being tender, are not able to climb up (the mountain) by this way,
so I shall go alone quickly, today,

1100. From that place, the best of the gods began to climb up the way, and
there came into existence a temple of the god called Istapathesvara.

1101-2. As the god Mahesvara climbed the mountain by that way, the excessively
clever mountain became higher and higher. Mahesvara was tired and being angry
to know that the hill was increasing in height, he assumed a terrible form and
gave him with his foot, a stroke on the head.

1103-5. Since then, that mountain is called Mundaprstha. By touching
Mundaprstha with whole of the body, a man is freed from the sin of saying
something unauspicious. Kicked by the god, the mountain assumed a human form
and with both hands joined together, he said to the lord of the gods of gods.
“I am miserable.” Then pleased and full of compassion the lord of the gods
said to the mountain:

1106. “O mountain, your water which has come out by the stroke of my foot,
shall be known as Krpanitirtha on the earth.”

1107. After naming the mountain as Mundaprstha he assumed a beautiful form.
That place inhabited by the nymphs is Apsarastirtha.

1108. Then, having seen the heart-fascinating sacred place known as
Brahmasara, (he) assumed the form of a swan and broke forth the mountain in no

1109. The opening in the mountain, which was made by the high-minded (god in
the form of a swan, is known as Hamsadvara – the destroyer of all sins.

1110-11. Then, having seen the sacred places Vatika and Sandika, the great god
reached Kapila Tirtha and saw the highly fortunate Brahmana surrounded by the
gods and performing sacrifice in the company of sages.

1112. Seeing the god Mahesvara in the form of a swan Brahma kneeled down on
the earth and saluted the high god.

1113. O lord of the earth, listen to what Sakra spoke, saluting Brahma – the
lord of the world – when he saw him prostrated.

1114. Sakra said “Salutation to you, O lord of the gods of the gods, the cause
of the cause of the world, the lord of the three worlds, the omniscient, the
lord of all!

1115. I do not see in this world, any cause other than your-self. By you are
pervaded all the three worlds including movable and immovable objects.

1116-17. O lord, you are the progenitor, protector and destroyer of all this.
The three worlds are born, when you open your eyes and when, O lord of the
worlds, you go to sleep, all these three worlds are destroyed.

1118. Supported by you, this earth supports all this movable and immovable
(creation). Upheld by you, the waters hold this whole world.

1119. O lord, it is due to your lustre that the fire bears this whole world
and it is due to your energy that the wind sustains this whole world.

1120. O lord, it is due to your strength that the ether – the birth place of
sound – bears the whole world. O highly gifted one, you are said to be the
Supreme Spirit.

1121. You are glorified as intellect and the as soul of all this (creation).
You are Indefinable Purusa and also (the constituent elements called) raja,
sattva and tama.

1122-24. You are the senses and the objects of the senses. You are called the
gross physical elements (Bhuta) and the subtle physical essences (Tanmatra).
You are the knower (Jnata) and the thing to be known (Jneya), the body
(Ksetra) and the soul (Ksetrajna) and the highest lord. You are the meditator,
the object of meditation, the meditation itself and various types of
sacrifices. You alone are all this, O lord! What else is there than your own
self? O highly gifted one as you are prostrated, a great doubt has arisen in

1125-26. Brhadasva (said): Addressed thus by Sakra, Brahma spoke these words:
“This is my second form, Sarvi, the most purifying one and possessed of high
penance – before which I am prostrated. Please it by making salutations along
with all the gods.”

1127-28. Addressed so, then, Indra – surrounded by all the hosts of the gods –
praised, with the favour of Brahma, Hara, the destroyer of Tripura, the lord
of the gods of the gods and Sankara in the true sense of the word.

1129-32. Sakra said: “Salutation to you, O lord of the gods, encompassing the
three worlds with magical power! The sacrificer, the earth, the sky, the
water, the fire, the moon, the sun and the wind are stated to be your bodies
which pervade the three worlds. O preceptor of the world, after assuming the
Brahmi form which is rajasi, you create the worlds (but) you are not created,
O soul of the beings! O Mahesvara, you – standing (apart) like a witness –
sustain the three worlds and O god, after assuming Kala form which is tamasi,
you destroy the world.

1133. Dharma – assuming the form of a bull – serves as (your) mount. You are
always celibate though left half of your body is female.

1134. The mass of your matted hair is marked with the lunar crescent and
stirred by the waves of Ganga. O Mahesvara, salutation to you!

1135. Salutation to you, O enemy of Tripura and destroyer of Andhaka!
Salutation to you who became immersed in the blood of the demon Amsa rent
asunder with the front pan of the spear!

1136. (Salutation to you) O Parvati’s lover, wearing a garland of skulls,
possessing powerful weapons, terrifying one and holding dreadful arms.

1137-38. (Salutation to you) O Urdhvalinga, Sighra, Kratha, Krathana,
auspicious, excellent, bountiful, the Great Swan, possessed of a terrifying
eye, Bhusunda, wearing a serpent as the sacred thread.

1139. Forgive me, O chief of the gods and lord of the world, as it was due to
being overwhelmed at first by your magical power that I did not worship you.

1140. O Sambhu, you are pleased indeed, as you have been recognised by me. O
lord of the gods, you are possessed of good favour. O Mahesvara, I am
prostrated before you.

1141-42. Brhadasva (said) : “Praised thus by Indra, Brahma, sages and gods,
Sankara gave up the form of a swan and having assumed his own form, went to
the sacrifice of Brahma and appeared before the gods. Thereafter, the God
brought the goddess and also the bull.

1143. At the completion of the sacrifice of Brahma, lord of the gods of the
gods went to Kalodaka lake along with the hosts of the gods.

1144. There, he saw Nandi, weakened due to hunger and cold and followed by
death, as if by a relative.

1145. Seeing Nandi – the best amongst the reciters of the god’s name –
Mahadeva exclaimed, “O child, rise up, rise up. Ask for a boon as pleases

1146. Having seen the god Hara standing along with the goddess Parvati and
accompanied by all the host of the gods, (Nandi) relinquished the fear of

1147. Leaving the rock aside, he stood up excitedly from the midst of waters
and worshipped the lord of the gods with (laudatory) speeches and (offerings
of) water.

1148-49. Worshipped by him, Sankara said smilingly: “Dear child, I am
satisfied with your recital (of the name) of Rudra and your penance, You shall
dwell near me, as pleases you, with this very body. There is no fear to you
from death.

1150. Remember your previous birth when you were my door-keeper. After that,
Silada – the chief of the twice-borns – obtained you through penance.

1151-52. O son, by you as a son, Silada has been carried across (the world).
Having obtained predominance among the ganas, you shall live in my company in
a place at a distance of one yojana from here towards the east. O best of the
ganas, I, in the form of Hara Bhutesvara, shall dwell in your company.

1153. O Nandi, the gifted sage Vasistha on the earth shall erect your image
and also mine at that holy place.

1154-59. We shall always be present there, O twice-born! My linga called
Jyesthesa, originated formerly, is there. O twice-born, you should know my
continuous presence at that place also. O best among the twice-borns, devoted
to me, thousands and crores of sages used to bathe that linga (called)
Jyesthesa with the holy and celestial water (brought) from Uttaramanasa. O
Parsada, due to the influence of their penance and devotion towards me, you
yourself shall reach Uttaramanasa – the abode of Sodara Naga – and live
continuously at that place to the south of which flows the great river
Hiranyini, possessed of holy water and known as Kanakavahini. The Bhutas dwell
at Jyesthesa. O twice-born, live (there) at your will.

1160-62. Then, approach me with another body, O son!” Having spoken thus to
Nandi who lay prostrated, the lord of the gods – destroyer of the enemies of
the enemies of the gods – sent away death after consoling him. Taking Nandi
along with him, He saw Uttaramanasa and happily climbed up the peak called
Haramukuta, famous in the three worlds, in the vicinity of that very lake.

1163-64. Mahesvara, the god of the gods is always present there. The
high-famed Vasistha also, along with all the hosts of the gods, erected (the
image of) Hara – the lord of the Bhutas. To the west of that, he erected the
image of Nandi.

1165. O controller of the enemies, having done this, the gods went whence they
had come and so also the sages whose wealth is penance. The sacred waters also

1166. Thus, due to the curse of Bhrgu and due to the favour of Hara, Nandi is
always present there and for his pleasure (is present) Mahesvara too.

1167. The image of Nandisvara cannot be seen by the evil-doers. By seeing
Bhutesvara, one is freed from all the sins.

1168. By seeing Hara Bhutesvara, Jyesthesvara and Nandi after taking bath in
the holy Sodara, one may obtain prominence amongst the ganas.”

1169. Gonanda (said): “There is the holy abode of Suli – the god of the gods –
which goes by the name Kapotesvara. Tell me the origin of that.

1170. I am put in great doubt due to the name Kapotesvara, O Brahman, why is
the venerable Sambhu called Kapotesvara?”

1171-73. Brhadasva (replied): “O king, on the sacred bank of Drsadvati in
Kuruksetra, there stood in great penance, crores of sages to have a sight of
Rudra – the lord of the gods. Due to their devotion the venerable highest lord
told them in dream: “O quick-going ones, go soon to Kasmira where there is a
spacious and immaculate abode of the Naga. There, I shall be visible in

1174 Having heard this in dream, they told one another (about it) early in the
morning and desirous of seeing god Sambhu, all of them went together to

1175. Having reached that abode of the Naga, they could not see even a little
water, for the water was all over covered with pieces of wood.

1176. Moving the wooden logs with their hands, the best sages obtained
Rudrahood with their bodies by merely taking bath (therein).

1177-78. There was one Vasistha Brahmana named Gauraparasara who did not take
bath and did not, even out of curiosity, touch the wooden log. Staying there,
he made his body decay through fasting. Hara spoke to him in dream: “Why are
you suffering, O twice-born?”

1179-81 “Obtain Rudrahood quickly by taking bath and touching the wooden logs
!” The twice-born stood in submission and with folded hands, spoke to Rudra:
“That you can be visible after the attainment of Rudrahood is a fact, O father
of the world! But my mind is not satisfied without the sight of the lord of
the gods. You had said that you would be visible in disguise in the abode (of
the Naga).

1182-84. Without getting that (sight), O Sankara, I would neither go nor eat
(anything).” Smiling a bit, Sankara said to him again: “I have already
provided to them, my manifestation in the form of wooden log. Merely by seeing
me, they attained Rudrahood, O twice-born! Now, due to your penance which is
greater, I give you the desired boon. Ask for what you desire and obtain

1185-86. Gauraparasara (spoke): “O god, destroyer of the body of Kama, O
Mahesvara, if you are to give me a boon, then manifest yourself in the form of
a wooden log, to all the human beings, as you did to the sages. O lord of the
world, the world is suffering perpetually due to sin.”

1187. Mahesvara said: “O best among the twice-borns, all those people who will
see (the god) standing in the form of wood, (will see the god) not always but
only occasionally.

1188. With a desire to do favour to them, my gana – this Nandi in the form of
wooden log – shall always be visible to the human beings.

1189-90. And having seen (him) they would attain Rudrahood with their bodies.
As I shall appear in disguise before men, so I shall obtain the name,
Kapalesvara. O best among the Brahmanas, there is plenty of water in this

1191. My manifestation will be in the previous form.” Thus has been related to
you, the origin of Kapotesvara.

1192. Gonanda (spoke): “O venerable one! I have a desire to hear about Visnu’s
abodes in Kasmira, and also the merit of those (places) where Hari is

1193. Brhadasva (said) : “O king, the god is always present (in the form of)
discus-wielder Hari. Having seen him who has lotus-like eyes, one obtains the
merit of (giving) ten cows.

1194. God Janardana is always present (in the form of) Narasimha. Seeing him –
the lord of the gods of the gods – one obtains the merit of (performing)

1195. 0 King, the god Bahusara is always present in the holy and auspicious

1196-97. 0 best among the kings, (the god lives) in the images erected by
Vasistha, Kadru; Vinata., and Gautama. By seeing these images of Kesava, one
obtains the merit (of the performance) of Agnistoma.

1198. By the sight of another Nrsimha on the holy northern bank of Mahapadma
lake, one obtains the merit of (performing) Agnistoma.

1199-1207. By seeing (the images of) the god erected by Sakra, Varuna, Brahma,
Dhanesa, Yama, Hara, Divakara, Soma, Vahni, Pavana, Kasyapa, Bhrgu, Pulastya
and Atri, and by seeing anyone of these, namely, Bhurjasvami, Mahasvami
Satasrnga, Gadadhara, Janardana-Bhrgusvami near the abode of Meru, the god
Taittiriyesvara, the god Dandakasvami, Janardana-Ramasvami near Bhava, the
boon-giver god Narayanasthana towards west, the god Gajendramoksana near
Varaha, Varaha, Nrsimha, the boon-giver Bahurupa, the images of seven sages
near Sumukha, the boon-giver Turigavasa, the boon-giver Svayambhu, Guhavasa,
Yogisa, Ananta, the sage Kapila, Asvasirsa, Matsya, Hamsa, Kurma,
Uttankasvami, the god erected by Valakhilyas, Garuda, Jalavasa and the god
possessed of hoods, one gets the merit of (the gift of) ten cows.

1208. Seeing the image erected formerly in Magadha by Prthu – the son of Vena
– a man obtains the merit of (performing) Pundarika.

1209-10. And by seeing the auspicious image called Asramasvami, erected by
Bhrgu on Grdhrakuta and brought down from the hill to the vicinity of his
place, by the high- minded Rama – the son of Bhrgu – one is freed from all
sins. There is no doubt herein.

1211. Gonanda(asked): “Why was the image constructed by Bhrgu, brought down
from Grdhrakuta – the best of the mountains – to the vicinity of his own

1212. On account of the murder of his father (committed by Haihaya Ksatriyas),
Rama – the oppressor of the Ksatriyas – made the earth devoid of Ksatriyas for
twenty- one times.

1213. O best of the kings, at the time of the 21st massacre, some Ksatriyas
reached the hilly fort in Kasmira.

1214-16. O lord of the earth, being excessively angry, Rama pursued and killed
them. From amongst them also, a few Ksatriyas escaped death and leaving
Kasmira due to his fear, reached where there is the river Madhumati and the
other Rajanirmala. Even then Rama overtook them and angrily pulled them down.

1217-18. Having killed all the Ksatriyas, he,with his hands drenched in blood,
erected an image of the high-souled Kesava. (That image) called Rajavasa is
famous in all the worlds. By seeing that, a king quickly obtains success in
his undertakings.

1219. As Rama had erected that image in a mood of violence so Hari is always
present there in a fierce mood.

1220. Human beings also worship Him with a feeling of violence and as a result
of this feeling (they worship Him) daily with such actions as the killing of

1221. O lord of the earth, having excavated, at first, pits (filled) with the
blood of Ksatriyas, the pious Rama also went to Kuruksetra.

1222-24. That destroyer of the royal enemies obtained pleasure after
worshipping the forefathers in those (pits). The pleased forefathers addressed
him thus: “O long- armed Rama, deviate yourself from this act and go on a holy
pilgrimage. As you have killed the kings who were frightened and had taken
flight, your body has become sinful with that sin. Hence, O son, go to the
holy places for purifying yourself.

1225-26. Till you become possessed of a purified body, O son, the fast
sticking blood would not disappear from your hands. When both your hands
become free from blood, then having become purified, you should practice
penance as may please you.

1227. O king, addressed thus and honoured by the forefathers, Rama went then,
as a pilgrim, to all the holy places.

1228. Then, he went to Kasmira and having bathed in all the holy places, he
reached near Grdhrakuta.

1229. After a bath at the place where the Suddha and the Sarasvati meet, the
hands of Rama became purified.

1230-31. Rama also gave to that place, a boon, viz. “After taking bath at this
holy spot, a man will give up all his sins. With his body purified, he shall
attain the world as is accessible to the Bhrgus.” Thus the tormentor of the
armies of the enemies purged of sin.

1232. He practiced hard penance after arriving at Pathesvara and thereafter
arrived as the river Punyoda which had originated from the Brahmasara.

1233. When the high-minded Rama performed austerities there, the river became
famous on the earth, by the name Ramahrada.

1234. Having performed austerities there, for a year, Rama went for penance to
the foot of Grhrakuta.

1235-36, Not far from the place where his hands had attained purity and not
far from the Punyoda, there is the abode of the high-souled Naga king Ananta.
(Rama) performed hard penance there and erected the image of the god Sarngi.

1237-38. While Rama of unwearied activity was staying there, a good Brahmana
went to see Asramasvami. He took a cow along with him to offer to that god.
She breathed her last there on the hard way on that mountain.

1239. O lord of the earth, the Brahmana also – immersed in repentance – came
back with a mind full of grief and sorrow, after leaving the cow.

1240-41. Persistent in piety, that Vasistha (Brahmana) went to the hermitage
of Rama and related all that bad happened, to the high-souled Rama. Then Rama,
seeing with his celestial sight, said to him.

1242. “O best among the twice-borns, this charming celestial woman born in
heaven deceived, in the guise of a cow, Narada – the heavenly sage. 1243-44.
Having come to know this, he cursed her and she became your cow. Further, he
pronounced the end of the curse thus: “While being carried by the cow-owner,
to the mountain Grdhrakuta, you shall give up the body and again turn into a
nice fairy.

1145. O twice-born, she has been freed from the curse by you, so no sin
accrues to you. By my favour you shall be endowed with the merit of the gift
of a cow.

1146. Go and see your own lord of the gods living in Asrama. By his sight you
shall be freed from all the sins.

1247. I, too, with a desire to do good to the world, shall bring that image
here, by propitiating Madhusudana – the best among the gods.

1248. O Brahmana, people often worship that Hari with the gift of cow and the
cows suffer a lot while climbing up the hill.

1249. O chief among the twice-borns, there would not be (any suffering), when
the image is brought here.” Then, that descendant of Bhrgu practiced penance
at that very place.

1250-1252. Then, O king, at the end of the year, he saw with his celestial
sight, pleased Madhusudana, standing in front, resembling a heap of snow (due
to being) adorned with white clothes, decorated with a crown of the hue of the
sun and with earrings, four-faced, four-armed, accompanied by the abode of the
four Vedas, and with cries of victory pronounced by weapons endowed with human
bodies. Seeing Madhusudana, O king, he praised him thus.

1253. Salutation to you, O lord of the gods of the gods, destroyer of the
sufferings of those who prostrate (before you).

1254. Salutation to you who are possessed of four forms, endowed with a bulky
body, abode of four Vedas, long-armed, finder of the cow, (earth), lotus-eyed
and having Varaha and other incarnations.

1255. Bearing the earth on the front part of the jaws, crushing the mountains
into pieces, you are Varaha by whom this world is held constantly.

1256. Salutation to you, O Man-lion – surrounded by garlands of flames – who
broke forth the chest of Hiranyakasipu with the tips of nails.

1257. Salutation to you – the god who took three steps – desirous of victory.
Salutation to you, O lord, possessed of the head of a horse and with face
embellished with Soma.

1258-60. O god, you are the final resort of all the gods when they are in
suffering. The senses, the objects of of senses, the gross physical elements,
the mind, the intellect, the soul, avyakta born of Purusa, sattva, rajas,
tamas, Brahma, Visnu, Mahesvara, the three worlds including movables and
immovables, all this is pervaded by you. I do not see anything else than
yourself in the three worlds.

1261. O god, it was through your strength that I killed, on the earth, the
Ksatriyas and one crore highly strong Saimhikeyas.

1262. Obeisance to you, O lord of the gods, O minutest among the minute and
the greatest among the great, O lover of the daughter of the ocean, O assumer
of forms at your own will!

1263-64. O giver of desired wishes, O destroyer of sins, honoured by the enemy
of Kama, praised continually by the lotus-born (Brahma) by means of four
mouths, cause of the causes of the world, how should I praise you? O praised
one, O lord of the three worlds, O master, salutation to you by all means!

1265-66. 0 god, salutation to you on sides; O lord, salutation to you all
around i.e. on the mountains, in the seas, in the worlds and in the sky.
Salutation to you, salutation to you, salutation to you everywhere.”

1267. Eulogized thus by Rama, Janardana said to him: “O long-armed Rama –
possessed of good vow – ask for a boon.

1268. O child possessed of a good vow, with your valour, penance and this hymn
of praise, I am pleased as much as of none else.”

1269. Rama (spoke): “O lord, I want to bring here, the image erected by Bhrgu,
from the peak of Grdhrakuta Your honour may permit me for that.”

1270. The god spoke: O best among the Bhrgus, I have bestowed a favour upon
you. Do as you like, so that the people may be freed from sin without any

1271. Brhadasva (said): Having spoken thus, the lord Visnu disappeared. Rama
also brought down that image from Grdhrakuta.

1272. He erected with devotion that image which belonged to him, midway
between Ananta and Kuta. By seeing that, a man obtains the merit of
(performing) Pundarika.

1273. Shining with austerities, Rama also went to Mahendra Mountain, after
giving the earth to Kasyapa, in the great sacrifice (called) Vajimedha.

1274. O well-versed in piety, thus was the auspicious image brought by Rama,
from Grdhrakuta – the best of the mountains – to the vicinity of his

1275. Gonanda (said): “O best among the narrators and possessed of unlimited
intelligence, tell me (about) the sacred places situated near this country and
also the merit which accrues from each.”

1276-77. Brhadasva (spoke): “By climbing up the Grdhrakuta one gets the merit
of (the gift of) one thousand cows and goes to heaven (by bathing) in the
confluence of the Vitasta and the Madhumati.

By climbing up the Indranila, one obtains the merit of (the gift of) one
thousand cows. Having reached the river Kumunari, one is freed from all sins
by taking bath therein.

1278-79. One gets the merit of (the gift of) one thousand cows (by bathing in)
the confluence of the Krsna and the Vitasta and gets the merit of performing
Vahnistoma by seeing Cakresa erected by Sandilya on the bank of the Madhumati.

One gets the fulfillment of one’s cherished desire by seeing Durga.

1280. There flows also the river named Sandili – the destroyer of sins. By
taking bath in that, one becomes free from sins and goes to heaven.

1281. The man who takes bath in the confluence of the Sandili and the
Madhumati, is freed from all sins and goes to heaven.

1282. Through a sight of Hari (called) Rajavasa, one obtains one’s desired
object and after reaching Rajovinirmala, one is freed from sins by taking bath

1283. Uma, in her monthly course for the 1st time, took bath therein. Through
a sight of Gaurisikhara one obtains the world of the Moon.

1284. O king, at first her hue was like that of a blue lotus but by performing
penance there, she obtained heart- enchanting fair complexion.

1285. O giver of honour, it is highly strange indeed that even in the dark
half (of the month), the human beings continually see that hill endowed as it
were with moonlight.

1286. By plunging separately in the Telala and in the holy Bhurjala, one gets
the merit equal to that of (the gift of) hundred cows.

1287-88a. By taking bath in the confluence of these two, one obtains the merit
of (performing) Vajapeya. O king, it is stated by the sages that for him who
bathes in the confluence of these two and the Madhumati, there accrues the
holy merit of the gift of an elephant.

1288b-89. Having reached the charming source of the Madhumati, one is freed
from all the sins and is honoured in the world of Rudra.

By bathing in Uttaramanasa, one gets the merit of (the gift of) thousand cows.

1290. The forefathers who are satiated at that place have fulfillment of
cherished desires. By bathing in the (lake of) Haramunda, one gets the merit
of (the gift of) ten cows.

1291-92. By climbing up Haramunda, a man obtains the merit of (performing)
Rajasuya sacrifice.

Fallen from the moon, Ganga – the best of the rivers – is situated there, by
taking bath in which, all sins are certainly washed away.

At the confluence of Ganga and Manasa, one acquires the merit of (performing)

1293. By taking bath in Devatirtha, a man reaches Uttaramanasa.

In the Agastya (lake) constructed by the Valakhilyas, one becomes equal to the
sages, in lustre.

1294-95. Having reached Kalodaka, Nandikunda, Sankha, Cakra, Gada, Padma,
Kapilatirtha, the holy places of Vatika and Sandika, the holy places of the
nymphs and the highest Brahma and Krpanitirtha, one gets at each, the merit of
(the gift of) hundred cows.

1296. All the sins are completely washed away by bathing at the place where
the river originated from Manasa meets Kalodaka.

1297. Holy are the wives of the gods. Suryasara is remembered to be holy;
Tarasara, Candrasara and the great Kalusaka are holy.

1298-99. O lord of the earth, there is the holy place of the sacrifice of
Brahma. By seeing every one of these, namely, Sakratirtha, Devatirtha and
Brahmanakundikatirtha, one obtains the merit of (the gift of) a hundred cows.
Having reached Hamsadvara, one certainly attains heaven.

1300. Having arrived at the source of the Sindhu, one gets the merit of
(performing) Rajasuya, and by bathing in Bindusara one gets that of
(performing) Pundarika.

1301. By taking bath in the Madava, one gets the merit of (the gift of)
thousand cows and by seeing the river named Sandhya, one is freed from all

1302. Not going to the unfaithful, she approaches nicely one who is possessed
of unfailing vow. By merely seeing there the holy place of Agni, one is
honoured in the world of Agni.

1303-4. Holy is the river Citrapatha and so also Mrgananda and Mrga. One gets
the merit of (the gift of) a hundred cows through every one of these, namely,
Godavari, Vaitarani, auspicious Mandakini, Candrabhaga and Gomati, the remover
of all sins and fears.

1305-6. The sins of a person who bathes at the place where the holy Citrapatha
and the great river Madava meet, are destroyed. Moreover, he attains heaven
and purifies his family. O king, these great rivers have been described to

1307. Their confluences are sacred and give heaven as award. Sacred is the
mountain Citrakuta where Uma was married.

1308. There is the celestial ointment by anointing the body with which, a mall
becomes possessed of a beautiful form and good gifts.

1309-11. There is Gavyasara and Pancagavyasara. O king, there are five other
(lakes) and also the sacred Tailasara, the sacred Udvartanasara, the sacred
Atasisara, Siddharthakasara and the (lake filled with the) water of the
Myrobalan fruit (amalakavari). There is the holy Madhuparkasara and the holy
Usnodaka. One obtains heaven by seeing every one of these.

1312. One is honoured in heaven by climbing up the Citrakuta. There is a holy
place named Saptarsi which gives the fruit of all desires.

1313. The offering of boiled rice to Saptarsi is more efficacious than (the
performance of) one thousand Asvamedhas, one hundred Rajasuyas and (the gift
of) one lac cows.

1314. O king, funeral ceremonies, charity, recital of the name of the God,
bath, sacrifice and worship, all these become imperishable when performed at
that place.

1315. Having arrived at Vastrapada, one is honoured in the world of Rudra and
after reaching Chagalesvara, one gets one’s desire fulfilled.

1316. Having become an attendant of Rudra, one enjoys oneself in His company.
By reaching the source of Parosni, one obtains the merit of (the gift of) one
thousand cows.

1317. After bathing in Usnodaka one gets the merit of giving one thousand cows
in charity and having reached Sahasradhara, one is honoured in the world of

1318-1320. Visnu, while stepping over the worlds, created that lake by means
of his foot, so it is called Kramasara as is the other place Visnupada. When
the god Brahma performed Vedic sacrifices there, then that Kramasara came to
be spoken of as the destroyer of all sins. When there was the abode of the
Naga Kaundinya, then that place became famous by the name Kaundinyasara only.

1321-22a. By worshipping the gods and the manes, by seeing three beautiful
peaks (named) Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara, and after having taken bath
therein, one certainly obtains the three worlds of those (gods).

1222b-23. O lord of the earth, one attains heaven a saves one’s family by
seeing the sacrificial place of Brahma there. By seeing there the beautiful
Ksirasara, one is released from sins.

1324. By bathing on the dark 14th after reaching the source of the Samara, one
is freed from all the sins and is honoured in the world of Rudra.

1325. I have narrated to you the sacred places which are near and which remove
the sins of all. What else should I tell you?”

1326. Gonanda (spoke): “O twice-born, with (your) sins burnt by austerities,
tell me about the prominent tirthas in Kasmira and about the merit which can
be obtained by taking bath in them.”

1327-28. Brhadasva (said): “The sacred great river named Kaundinya originating
from the lake Kramasara gives, through bath, the merit of (performing)
Pundarika. And the holy river Ksira is the giver of the merit of (the gift of)
a hundred cows. One gets the merit of (giving) one thousand cows by bathing in
the confluence of both of them.

1329. A man becomes devoid of grief and possessed of wealth, by taking bath in
the Visoka and obtains the holy merit of (performing) Devasattra.

1330. O chief of the kings, one gets the merit of (performing) Vajapeya, by
taking bath at the place where the Kaundini meets the Visoka.

1331. A man gets (the merit of performing) the sacrifice Gosava, by taking
bath at Vrddhatirtha. Vasuki – the lord of the Bhujagas – is always present

1332. By bathing in Devasara, a man obtains the world of gods and by bathing
at Agnitirtha he obtains the world of Agni.

1333. In the south-eastern portion of Devasara is present the river named
Sarasvati, by bathing in which, a man goes to heaven.

1334. A man obtains the merit of (the gift of) a hundred cows by bathing in
two tirthas, one in front of Vinatasvami and the other near Kadrusvami.

1335. O giver of honour, there is the goddess Samdhya, the holy river, by
bathing in which, sin is removed from the body and one goes to heaven.

1336-37. Samdhya Puskarini is another (holy place) which gives the merit equal
to that of the previous one. One is honoured in heaven after plunging with
devotion into the holy Brahmanakundika and after seeing the holy place bearing
three names Nilakunda, Vitastakhya and Sulaghata.

1338-39. Having reached Vinasana, one gets the merit of (the performance of)
Vajapeya. Charity, funeral ceremonies and penance (performed) at
Brahmanakundika and Nilakunda, are stated to be imperishable. By bathing in
Vitastonmajjana, one obtains the merit of (giving) one thousand cows.

1340. 0 lord of the earth, by bathing in Pancahastaka, one obtains the (merit
of performing) five sacrifices which a householder is required to perform

1341. Lokapunya is, verily, the remover of all sins. By bathing in Kapotaka, a
man gets the merit of giving a cow.

1342. O best of the kings, Vitastonmajjana in the hermitage of Visnu in front
of Nrsimha is holy. One is honoured in the world of Visnu (by bathing in

1343-44. The merit of (the gift of) one thousand cows accrues for him who
bathes in the Dhyanadharini, and by bathing in the sin-destroying confluence
of the Vitasta and the Dhyanadharini, a man obtains the holy merit of
(performing) Vajapeya. Having entered the Dhyanadharini, the Vitasta
disappeared at that place.

1345. The river Visoka, concealing herself, reached that place soon. The merit
of (performing) Rajasuya is considered to accrue at the confluence of these
two at Dhaumyasrama.

1346. By seeing Caturvedi, a man gets the merit of giving a daughter (in

Having arrived at the Harsapatha, a human being obtains much gold.

1347. By reaching the source of Trikoti, one is freed from all sins and having
reached the source of the Candravati, one is honoured in the world of the

1348. By bathing in Devatirtha one becomes a god and gets a son. And by
bathing in Trikoti, a man is honoured in the world of the gods.

1349. By bathing in Harsapatha, one is honoured in the world of Sakra and by
bathing in Candravati one gets the merit of (giving) ten cows.

1350. Holy is the river Harsapatha and so also is Candravati. The wise say
that there accrues (the merit of the performance of) Rajasuya at the
confluence of these two.

1351. The area beginning from the confluence of Trikoti up to Raupyesvara Hara
should be regarded equal (in merit) to Varanasi or even more powerful.

1352. One attains the world of Rudra by taking bath in Kapotesvara and is
honoured in the world of Rudra (by taking bath) in the holy Visalingahrada.

1353. O lord of the earth, one attains the world of Rudra and saves one’s
family by taking bath in the Vitasta in front of Vijayesvara.

1354. One is honoured in the world of Visnu by taking bath in front of
Pingalesa and the same merit is stated to accrue from a bath at the hermitage
of Khandapuccha.

1355. By taking bath in Pundarika, a man gets the merit of (performing)
Pundarika sacrifice and by bathing in Surparka, one obtains the merit of the
gift of cows.

1356. One who gives food in charity at the confluence of the Vitasta and the
Dhyanadharini, gets merit which remains imperishable so long as there are the
fourteen Indras.

1357-58. All the sacred places are present, at that time, in the hermitage of
Narasimha. O lord of men, the area beginning from the confluence of the
Vitasta and the Dhyanadharini up to the worthy abode of the Naga Kalpasodasa
is as holy as Prayaga.

1359. By taking bath in Gangodbheda near Bhedadevi, a man obtains the merit of
bathing in the Ganga and is honoured in heaven.

1360-61. By plunging in the holy Katha, one gets the merit of the gift of ten
cows and by bathing in Aujasa in front of Dharmaraja, one does not reach the
state of misery and obtains the merit of (performing) Vajapeya.

1362. O king, one enjoys endlessly, the meals offered after death at that holy
place, specially on the dark fifteenth of the month Asvayuj.

1363. One is honoured in the world of Visnu by taking bath at Narayanasthana
and a similar merit is stated to accrue at Ramatirtha and Bhavotsa.

1364. By taking bath at Sailaprstha and the holy place of Vaisravana, one is
sure to possess wealth, wherever he may be born.

1365. Having bathed at Kamatirtha, a man obtains the fulfillment of his
desires and having bathed at Apasarastirtha, he becomes possessed of beauty.

1366. By bathing at Rsitirtha, one becomes pure like a sage and by bathing in
Vaitarani, one does not reach the state of misery.

1367-68. One gets the merit of the gift of cows by arriving at Rsikulya,
Devakulya, Asvatirtha, Prabhasa, Varuna, Vahnitirtha, Candratirtha,
Nagatirtha, Cakratirtha and Vamana.

1369. A man is honoured in heaven after having bathed at Madatirtha,
Skandatirtha and Suresvaritirtha.

1370. Having arrived at Madhuri, one gets the merit of giving one prastha of
sesame in charity and by bathing in her confluence with Vitasta, one is
removed from sins.

1371. One is honoured in the world of Rudra by seeing the mountain Mahadeva
after having a plunge in the Madhuri in front of Tripuresa.

1372. By bathing at Amaresa, a man may get the merit of (the gift of) a
hundred cows and by bathing in the Malini, one may get the merit of giving ten

1373. Having bathed at Pandavatirtha, one enjoys the merit of (performing) the
five sacrifices and having arrived at Uccesatirtha, one is honoured in the
world of Rudra.

1374-75. One gets much gold by bathing in the water of the Ramahrada. O king,
the merit of (bathing) both at the confluence of the Malini with the Sindhu
and at the place where the Ramahrada meets the Sindhu is stated to be equal to
(that of the performance of) Rajasuya and Asvamedha.

1376. One gets one thousand cows and becomes rich by taking bath at the place
where the Kanakavahini joins the Sindhu.

1377-79. Holy is the river Pavana. (There is also) the Rajobinduvinirmala, by
taking bath in which a man obtains the merit of performing) Pundarika. The
merit of (performing Rajasuya is considered to be accruing at the holy
confluence of these two rivers). The area, beginning from that place and
extending up to Ciramocana is regarded as sacred as that of Varanasi.

1380. The sacred place Cirapramocana is stated to be the provider of the way
to heaven. The presence of all the tirthas at that place has been mentioned by

1381. Leaving their clothes there, the seven sages went to heaven. By bathing
there, even those who are sinners, go to heaven.

1382-83. One gets the merit of (the gift of) one thousand cows by taking bath
in Sodara. The merit of (the performance of) Rajasuya and Asvamedha is stated
to accrue from both (the places), for a person who visits the confluence of
the Kanakavahini where meets also the holy river Kalodaka.

1384. The wise say that by bathing in the confluence of the Sindhu and the
Vitasta, specially on the full-moon day of the month Prausthapada, one obtains
the merit of (the performance of) Asvamedha.

1385. One gets the merit of (performing) Pundarika by taking bath in
Patratirtha and saves one’s family through bath in the Apaga.

1386. By taking bath in the lake Manasa, especially on the full-moon day of
the month of Asadha, one gets the merit of (performing) Agnistoma. There is no
need to doubt this.

1387-88. One obtains the merit of (performing) Vajapeya, (by bathing) in the
lake Mahapadma. A man gets the merit of (performing) Agnistoma by bathing in
the holy river Hiranya which takes rise from the Haramunda.

1389. One gets the merit of (performing) Asvamedha, especially on full-moon
day, (by bathing) at the place where Hiranya meets the holy lake Mahapadma.

1390. By bathing at Bahurupa, one is honoured in the world of Visnu. This, O
best among men, is stated to be the merit at Bahurupa.

1391-93. O king, the lord of men, it is stated by the sages – perceivers of
true essence – that the merit of the gift of ten cows accrues separately at
each sacred place, namely, the good sacred place Satasrnga, the sacred place
of Vaisravana, the sacred place near Bhurjasvami, the places sacred to the
Vasus, the Rudras, the Sadhyas, the Maruts, all the gods, the Bhrgus and the

1394. The merit of (the gift of) a hundred cows has been formerly stated for
each of the (two) places where the Bilasa and the Silama meet the Vitasta.

1395. The best amongst men immediately purifies his family by taking bath at
the place where the river Kularani meets the Vitasta.

1396. One gets the merit of (performing) Atiratra by having a plunge in
Puskara and that of Agnistoma by bathing at the holy place of the seven sages.

1397. A man attains the world of Visnu and saves his family by reaching the
sacred place Varaha in the water of Vitasta.

1398. A man surely obtains the world of Visnu by bathing in the water of the
Vitasta at Narayanasthana.

1399. For one who is bathed in both (the rivers) at the place where the river
Gotranadi approaches the Vitasta, the merit of (the gift of) one thousand cows
is pronounced.

1400-1403. The river Madhuri is specially holy like Mathura. One obtains the
merit arising from the gift of a cow by taking bath in every one of these viz.
the Satanila, the Samala, the river Vimalodaka, the holy river Rahula; the
great river Srimadhya, the second Suddha, the Samula, the Surasa. A man gets
the merit of giving ten cows by plunging in the confluences of all these
(rivers) separately. Having bathed in Anantatirtha, one is honoured in the
world of the Nagas.

1404-1405. One obtains the merit of giving ten cows by seeing every one of
these, namely, Bindunadesvaratirtha, Somatirtha, Prthudaka,
Tungesatirthaksetra, Utankasvami, Ramatirtha, Bhrgutirtha and the holy place
of Angiras.

1406. O king, all the good rivers and the fountains are sacred and all these
mountains are also sacred.

1407. O lord of the earth, all the images erected by the sages, and all the
great lakes (are holy) everywhere but specially so in Kasmira.

1408. Holy are all the confluences and the pools of the Nagas. One surely
obtains the merit of the gift of hundred Suvarnas (by bathing in them).

1409. Holy are these sacred places and specially so is the Vitasta. O king,
the goddess Vitasta is stated to be purifying everywhere.

1410. Even those men who are sinners go to heaven by bathing in that. O lord
of men, one gets the merit of (performing) Vahnistoma by bathing in that.

1411-1413. One, with one’s forehead anointed with goraja, is freed from all
sins, by seeing (the river Vitasta) and by bathing in the Vitasta on the
bright thirteenth, at the places where the Vitasta is holy always but is
specially so on the bright thirteenth of a month. (The places are) the
hermitage Vitastakhya, Dhaumyesa, the confluence of (the Vitasta and) the
Sindhu, and Varahatirtha which destroys the sins and gives (the merit of
performing) Rajasuya.

1414. A man who has committed any invisible sin except the five (great sins),
removes (that sin) away by one bath in the cold water.

1415. O king, a man gets his desired objects if he takes bath there, before
sun-rise, for the whole winter.

1416-1417. One attains heaven so long as there are the fourteen Indras, by
bathing properly, worshipping the fire in the right procedure and then
offering boiled rice and pulses mixed with purified butter to the Brahmanas.

1418. O lord of men, a person who takes bath daily thus for the whole year
will obtain the means of getting salvation and then will obtain salvation.

1419. I have narrated to you, all the sayings of Nila and the merit of all the
sacred places of Kasmira. I am going. May you be happy.

1420. Whatever has been narrated by me to you, should be remembered with
effort. By listening to this, a man obtains the merit of the gift of ten

1421. Vaisampayana said: “Having spoken thus to the king Gonanda, the
pious-minded Brhadasva took his desired route for holy pilgrimage.

1422. The militant Gonanda also thought highly himself and ruled over the
earth, in accordance with the instructions of the Sastras.

1423. Janamejaya (said): “O best among the twice- borns, tell me again the
glorification of the Vitasta. I shall go after being free from sins by
listening to that.

1424. Vaisampayana (said) ;”O king, it was beautiful Sati, the daughter of
Daksa and the beloved wife of Hara, who was called Uma in Vaivasvata Antara.

1425. The same daughter of the Himadri was the sin- destroying Yamuna and the
same was spoken of as the greatest boat in the three worlds, at the end of

1426. The (same) goddess is called Kasmira and the same is the river Vitasta.
The river goddess arose from the Nether world, by means of the stroke of the

1427. On account of the destruction of all sins after bathing in the water of
the Vitasta, one by one’s own self knows oneself to be possessed of the
quality of lightness.

1428-29. O lord of men, the Ganga does not excel the Vitasta. The on]y thing
which the water of the Ganga has more than that of the Vitasta, is the heap of
the bones of men. Bath and other things are equal.

1430-31. O king, this Ganga was brought down formerly by the king Bhagiratha
desirous of deluging the bones of the high-minded Sagaras, so she is stated to
be famous in that act. The auspicious Vitasta is verily the holy river,
remover of all sins.

1432. All those who died with the water of the Vitasta in their bellies,
reached heaven like the soma-drinkers.

1433. The gods are satisfied not so much with the sacrifices accompanied by
sacrificial fees as they are with those waters (of the Vitasta).

1434. The Fathers are satisfied just as with various sorts of offerings of
sweet food given to proper persons in proper time at holy place, so with those
clean waters (of the Vitasta).

1435-36. The Nagas of various forms, the rivers, the holy places, the gods,
the sages, the Gandharvas, the Yaksas and the Raksasas constantly approach
her. The wise (man) should go to her to make his birth a success.

1437. Varuna knows the man who merely bathes in the Vitasta and how can he,
who is known by the lord of the waters, fall in hell?

1438. The goddess Vitasta – destroyer of sins- gives protection with her hand,
to the evil-doing sinners falling into hell.

1439-1441a. Those who will go to the Vitasta, the staircase for climbing up to
heaven and the giver of the fulfillment of desires, shall go to Amaravati, by
means of a sky- chariot containing the swans and the aquatic birds (Sarasa),
decorated by the Cakravakas, having a colour like that of the sun, garlanded
with a net-work of small bells, swarming with a host of heavenly maidens and
resounding with the sounds of the Vina and the Muraja.

1441b-1444. O chief of the kings, those men obtain fame on the earth, who go
to the goddess Vitasta, endowed with various bridges, decorated with blue and
red lotuses, filled with the sounds of the herds of the cows, resounding with
the bellowing-sounds, full of fish and tortoises, possessed of good bathing
places, giver of the desired objects, possessed of the water which tastes like
nectar, charming to the eyes of men and boon-giver like a mother.

1445. 0 king, pay obeisance to her, the purifying one praised by the high
sages, possessed of tasty water, daughter of the Himalaya who is the king of
the mountains, and the wife of Hara in the form of the sea.

1446-47. The Sindhu, the Trikoti, the Visoka, the holy and auspicious river
Harsapatha, the holy Sukha, the Candravati, the Sugandha, the sin-destroying
Punyodaka, the Kularani, the sin-removing Krsna, the holy Madhumati and the
holy river Parosni go to the boon-giver and celestial Vitasta.

1448. O king, the river Ganga on the matted hair of Sambhu – torn forth by the
god Moon and hence called Candrabhaga in the human world – comes to the sacred
and extensive Vitasta.

1449. O king, the sacred places, the lakes, the rivers, the tanks, the various
types of wells, all these come to the boon- giver Vitasta, on the bright
thirteenth of Bhadrapada.

1450. Who can be able, O king, to describe to you the merits of the goddess
even in several hundred years? Having heard a little which has been narrated
by me with devotion, you should be always devoted (to her).

1451. Having listened to the glorification of the Vitasta, one is freed from
all sins and having heard the whole of the Nilamata, one gets the merit of
(the gift of) ten cows.

1452-53. Narrated thus to Janamejaya by Vyasa’s pupil who had undertaken a
great vow, this was not included in the Bharata lest that should become
exhaustive with the inclusion of all the treatises. As it was not useful
everywhere, so the high-souled venerable (Vyasa) did not include it in the
most interesting though highly exhaustive Bharata – dear to the people like
the full moon.

This is Vitasta Mahatmya. This (treatise) named the

Animesh’s Blog

3 thoughts on “Complete English Translation of nilamata purANaM

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